World Prison Population

"This report shows that more than 10.35 million people are held in penal institutions throughout the world, either as pre-trial detainees/remand prisoners or having been convicted and sentenced. Figures for Eritrea, Somalia and the Democratic
People’s Republic of (North) Korea are not available and those for China and Guinea Bissau are incomplete (see footnote to Table 3 concerning China). Also missing are prisoners held in some jurisdictions that are not fully recognised internationally and those pre-trial prisoners who are held in
police facilities and not included in published national prison population totals. The full total is therefore higher than 10.35 million and may well be in excess of 11 million.
"There are more than 2.2 million prisoners in the United States of America, more than 1.65 million in China (plus an unknown number in pre-trial detention or ‘administrative detention’), 640,000 in the Russian Federation, 607,000 in Brazil, 418,000 in India, 311,000 in Thailand, 255,000 in Brazil and 225,000 in Iran."

Source: 

Walmsley, Roy, "World Prison Population List (Eleventh Edition)" (London, England: International Centre for Prison Studies, 2016), p. 2.
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