Total Number of Adults Incarcerated in US Prisons and Jails

"On December 31, 2016, an estimated 2,162,400 persons were either under the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons or in the custody of local jails—10,400 fewer persons than in 2015. By year-end 2016, the number of persons incarcerated in state or federal prisons or local jails fell to the lowest level observed since 2004 (2,136,600) (not shown).
"During 2016, the prison population decreased 1.4%, while the jail population remained relatively stable. The U.S. prison population on December 31, 2016 (1,505,400), was at its lowest level since 2004 (1,497,100) (not shown). The total incarcerated population in 2016 was 0.5% lower than in 2015."

Source: 

Danielle Kaeble and Mary Cowhig, "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2016," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 2018), NCJ250374, p. 3.
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