Medical Marijuana

26. Medicinal Cannabis and Migraines

"The information reviewed above indicates that cannabis has a long established history of efficacy in migraine treatment. Clinical use of the herb and its extracts for headache has waxed and waned for 1200 years, or perhaps much longer, in a sort of cannabis interruptus. It is only contemporaneously that supportive biochemical and pharmacological evidence for the indication is demonstrable. Cannabis’ unique ability to modulate various serotonergic receptor subtypes, inhibit glutamatergic-mediated toxicities, simultaneously provide antiinflammatory activity and provide acute symptomatic and chronic preventive relief make it unique among available treatments for this disorder."

Russo, Ethan, "Hemp for Headache: An In-Depth Historical and Scientific Review of Cannabis in Migraine Treatment," Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics (September 2000) Vol. 1, pp. 73-74.

27. Cannabinoids and Gastrointestinal Functions

"The role of the endocannabinoid system in the control of GI functions under physiological and pathological conditions has recently received increased interest. Within the last 5 years, more than half of all studies on the roles of the endocannabinoid system in the GI tract have been published. The current state of knowledge of the physiology and pharmacology of cannabinoids has largely increased, providing new potential tools for the treatment of several GI diseases. The symptoms of the most common GI disorders, IBS and inflammatory bowel disease, affect more than 20% of the population in Western countries and cause great discomforts [106]. Intestinal cramping, nausea, chronic diarrhoea and inflammation are all symptoms onto which the cannabinoids may be effective. Cannabis derivatives and other newly developed cannabinoids may represent promising tools for the treatment of different GI disorders because they can act at multiple sites, covering a wide spectrum of symptoms."

Massa, Federico; Storr, Martin; and Lutz, Beat, "The endocannabinoid system in the physiology and pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract," Journal of Molecular Medicine (Berlin, Germany: August 26, 2005) Vol. 83, p. 951.

28. Medicinal Cannabis and Nausea

"This study was designed to determine how therapeutic users of cannabis rate its effectiveness as an anti-emetic, and particularly as a treatment for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. In general (not specific to pregnancy), the vast majority of our respondents considered cannabis to be extremely effective or effective as a therapy for nausea (93%) and vomiting (75%), and as an appetite stimulant (95%). In the context of pregnancy, cannabis was rated as extremely effective or effective by 92% of the respondents who had used it as a therapy for nausea and vomiting (morning sickness)."

Westfall, Rachel E.; Janssen, Patricia A.; Lucas, Philippe; and Capler, Rielle, "Survey of medicinal cannabis use among childbearing women: Patterns of its use in pregnancy and retroactive self-assessment of its efficacy against ‘morning sickness'," Contemporary Therapies in Clinical Practice (United Kingdom: November 2009) Vol. 15, Issue 4, p. 32.

29. Cannabinoids and Multiple Sclerosis

Cannabis and Multiple Sclerosis

"Using an objective measure, we saw a beneficial effect of inhaled cannabis on spasticity among patients receiving insufficient relief from traditional treatments. Although generally well-tolerated, smoking cannabis had acute cognitive effects. Larger, long-term studies are needed to confirm our findings and determine whether lower doses can result in beneficial effects with less cognitive impact."

Corey-Bloom, Jody; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony; Jin, Shelia; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Bentley, Heather; and Gouaux, Ben, "Smoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial," Canadian Medical Association Journal (Ottawa, Ontario: May 14, 2012), p. 7.

30. Medical Marijuana - Research - 11-9-12

“Short-Term Effects of Cannabis Therapy on Spasticity in Multiple-Sclerosis”
Jody Corey-Bloom, M.D., University of California, San Diego
(cannabis and muscle spasticity) "This objective of this study was to determine the potential for smoked cannabis to ameliorate marked muscle spasticity (chronic painful contraction of muscles), a severe and disabling symptom of multiple sclerosis. In a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial spasticity and global functioning was examined before and after treatment with smoked cannabis. Patients were allowed to continue their usual treatments for spasticity and pain while participating in the research.
"The full results of this study are being submitted for publication. Initial results were presented at the meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology in 2007. Thirty patients with multiple sclerosis were enrolled. Compared to placebo cigarettes, cannabis was found to significantly reduce both an objective measure of spasticity, and pain intensity. This study concluded that smoked cannabis was superior to placebo in reducing spasticity and pain in patients with multiple sclerosis, and provided some benefit beyond currently prescribed treatments."

Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research, "Report to the Legislature and Governor of the State of California presenting findings pursuant to SB847 which created the CMCR and provided state funding," University of California, (San Diego, CA: February 2010), p. 12.

31. Medical Marijuana - Research - 6-5-10

(Cannabinoids and Multiple Sclerosis) "We found evidence that combined extracts of THC and CBD [cannabidiol] may reduce symptoms of spasticity in patients with MS. Although the subjective experience of symptom reduction was generally found to be significant, objective measures of spasticity failed to provide significant changes. In a previous study of spasticity-related pain, MS patients also reported a subjective perception of symptom reduction with cannabinoids [10]. However, since at least one past animal study has provided objective, physiological evidence for the antispastic properties of cannabinoids [7], the distinction between perceived symptom relief and objective physiological changes in humans should therefore be primary in future research efforts.
"Given that adverse events occurred in each reviewed trial, we also encourage future comparison studies of cannabis treatments at a wide range of dosage in order to balance potential side effects with maximum therapeutic benefit.
"Finally, there is evidence that cannabinoids may provide neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory benefits in MS. Neuroinflammation, found in autoimmune diseases such as MS, has been shown to be reduced by cannabinoids through the regulation of cytokine levels in microglial cells [25]. The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in MS is therefore comprehensive and should be given considerable attention."

Lakhan, Shaheen E and Rowland, Marie, "Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review," BMC Neurology (Los Angeles, CA: Global Neuroscience Initiative Foundation, December 2009) Vol. 9, p. 63.

32. Medical Marijuana - Research - 12-16-09

Cannabis and HIV/AIDS

(Medical Cannabis and HIV Treatment) "This study provides evidence that short-term use of cannabinoids, either oral or smoked, does not substantially elevate viral load in individuals with HIV infection who are receiving stable antiretroviral regimens containing nelfinavir or indinavir. Upper confidence bounds for all estimated effects of cannabinoids on HIV RNA level from all analyses were no greater than an increase of 0.23 log10 copies/mL compared with placebo. Because this study was randomized and analyses were controlled for all known potential confounders, it is very unlikely that chance imbalance on any known or unknown covariate masked a harmful effect of cannabinoids. Study participants in all groups may have been expected to benefit from the equivalent of directly observed antiretroviral therapy, as well as decreased stress and, for some, improved nutrition over the 25-day inpatient stay."

Abrams, Donald I., MD, et al., "Short-Term Effects of Cannabinoids in Patients with HIV-1 Infection - A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial," Annals of Internal Medicine, Aug. 19, 2003, Vol. 139, No. 4 (American College of Physicians), p. 264.

33. Medical Marijuana - Research - 12-16-09

(Medical Cannabis and HIV) "Conclusions: Smoked and oral cannabinoids did not seem to be unsafe in people with HIV infection with respect to HIV RNA levels, CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts, or protease inhibitor levels over a 21-day treatment."

Abrams, Donald I., MD, et al., "Short-Term Effects of Cannabinoids in Patients with HIV-1 Infection - A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial," Annals of Internal Medicine, Aug. 19, 2003, Vol. 139, No. 4 (American College of Physicians), p. 258.

34. Cannabis and Viral Load in HIV-Positive Patients and Patients with Hep C Infections

"Short-term use of smoked cannabis did not affect viral load in 15 HIV-positive patients and also is associated with adherence to therapy and reduced viral loads in 16 patients with hepatitis C infections."

American Medical Association, Council on Science and Public Health, "Report 3 of the Council on Science and Public Health: Use of Cannabis for Medicinal Purposes" (December 2009), p. 15.

35. Medical Marijuana - Research - 1-6-10

(Safety of Cannabis During Treatment) "Cannabinoids have a favourable drug safety profile. Acute fatal cases due to cannabis use in humans have not been substantiated, and median lethal doses of THC in animals have been extrapolated to several grams per kilogram of body weight. Cannabinoids are usually well tolerated in animal studies and do not produce the generalized toxic effects of most conventional chemotherapeutic agents. For example, in a 2-year administration of high oral doses of THC to rats and mice, no marked histopathological alterations in the brain and other organs were found. Moreover, THC treatment tended to increase survival and lower the incidence of primary tumours. Similarly, long-term epidemiological surveys, although scarce and difficult to design and interpret, usually show that neither patients under prolonged medical cannabinoid treatment nor regular cannabis smokers have marked alterations in a wide array of physiological, neurological and blood tests."

Guzman, Manuel, "Cannabinoids: Potential Anticancer Agents." Nature Reviews: Cancer (October 2003), p. 752.

36. Number of Published Journal Articles on Potential Therapeutic Uses of Medical Cannabis

Potential Therapeutic Uses and Benefits from Medical Cannabis

"The length of this review, necessitated by the steady growth in the number of indications for the potential therapeutic use of cannabinoid-related medications, is a clear sign of the emerging importance of this field. This is further underlined by the quantity of articles in the public database dealing with the biology of cannabinoids, which numbered ~200 to 300/year throughout the 1970s to reach an astonishing 5900 in 2004. The growing interest in the underlying science has been matched by a growth in the number of cannabinoid drugs in pharmaceutical development from two in 1995 to 27 in 2004, with the most actively pursued therapeutic targets being pain, obesity, and multiple sclerosis (Hensen, 2005)."

Pacher, Pal; Batkai, Sandor; and Kunos, George, "The Endocannabinoid System as an Emerging Target of Pharmacotherapy," Pharmacological Reviews (Bethesda, MD: American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, September 2006), Vol. 58, No. 3. p. 441.

37. Medical Marijuana - Research - 5-21-10

(Endocannabinoid Deficiency) "Baker et al. have described how endocannabinoids may demonstrate an impairment threshold if too high, and a range of normal function below which a deficit threshold may be crossed [112]. Syndromes of CECD [Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency] may be congenital or acquired. In the former case, one could posit that genetically-susceptible individuals might produce inadequate endocannabinoids, or that their degradation is too rapid. The same conditions might be acquired in injury or infection."

Russo, Ethan, "Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD): Can this Concept Explain Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and other Treatment-Resistant Conditions?," Neuroendocrinology Letters (Stockholm, Sweden: Society of Integrated Sciences, Feb-Apr 2004) Nos.1/2, Vol.25, p. 38.

38. Medical Marijuana - Research - 8-23-10

Anti-Tumor Properties

(Cannabinoids and Skin Cancer) "The present data indicate that local cannabinoid administration may constitute an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Of further therapeutic interest, we show that skin cells express functional CB2 receptors. The synergy between CB1 and CB2 receptors in eliciting skin tumor cell apoptosis reported here is nonetheless intriguing because it is not observed in the case of cannabinoid-induced glioma cell apoptosis (21, 22). In any event, the present report, together with the implication of CB2- or CB2-like receptors in the control of peripheral pain (40–42) and inflammation (41), opens the attractive possibility of finding cannabinoidbased therapeutic strategies for diseases of the skin and other tissues devoid of nondesired CB1-mediated psychotropic side effects."

Casanova, M. Llanos; Blázquez,Cristina; Martínez-Palacio, Jesús; Villanueva, Concepción; Fernández-Aceñero, Jesús; Huffman, John W.; Jorcano, José L.; and Guzmán, Manuel, "Inhibition of skin tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo by activation of cannabinoid receptors," Journal of Clinical Investigation (Ann Arbor, MI: American Society for Clinical Investigation, January 2003), p. 49.

39. Medical Marijuana - Research - 8-23-10

(Cannabis and Mantle Cell Lymphoma) "In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the cannabinoid receptor agonists R(+)-MA and Win55 induce a sequence of signaling events leading to cell death of MCL [Mantle Cell Lymphoma] cells. The requirement of ligation of both CB1 and CB2 [receptors] raises the possibility that cannabinoids may be used to selectively target MCL cells to undergo apoptosis."
Note: According to the study authors: "MCL is a malignant B-cell lymphoma with an aggressive course and generally a poor clinical outcome. MCL tumors respond to chemotherapy, but the remissions are short and the median survival is only 3 years."

Gustafsson, Kristin; Christensson, Birger; Sander, Birgitta; and Flygare, Jenny, "Cannabinoid Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis Induced by R(+)-Methanandamide and Win55,212-2 Is Associated with Ceramide Accumulation and p38 Activation in Mantle Cell Lymphoma," Molecular Pharmacology (Bethesda, MD: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, August 2006), p. 1619.

40. Medical Marijuana - Research - 6-20-10

(Potential Antitumor Properties of Cannabinoids) "In conclusion, our data indicate that cannabidiol, and possibly Cannabis extracts enriched in this natural cannabinoid, represent a promising nonpsychoactive antineoplastic strategy. In particular, for a highly malignant human breast carcinoma cell line, we have shown here that cannabidiol and a cannabidiol-rich extract counteract cell growth both in vivo and in vitro as well as tumor metastasis in vivo. Cannabidiol exerts its effects on these cells through a combination of mechanisms that include either direct or indirect activation of CB2 and TRPV1 receptors and induction of oxidative stress, all contributing to induce apoptosis."

Ligresti, Alessia; Moriello, Aniello Schiano; Starowicz, Katarzyna; Matias, Isabel; Pisanti, Simona; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Laezza, Chiara; Portella, Giuseppe; Bifulco, Maurizio; and Di Marzo, Vincenzo, "Antitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma," The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (Bethesda, MD: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, March 2004) Vol. 318, No. 3, pp. 1386-1387.

41. Medical Marijuana - Research - 1-11-10

(Potential of Cannabinoids in Cancer Therapy) "The use of cannabinoids in medicine is limited by the psychoactive effects mediated by neuronal CB1 receptors (1, 2). Although these adverse effects are within the range of those accepted for other medications, especially in cancer treatment, and tend to disappear with tolerance upon continuous use, it is obvious that cannabinoid-based therapies devoid of side effects would be desirable (3–5). Because glioma cells express functional CB2 receptors (7), we tested the effect of the nonpsychoactive, CB2 receptor-selective agonist JWH-133 and found that it indeed depresses MMP-2 expression in vivo. Likewise, the use of CB receptor type–selective antagonists indicates that CB2 receptors participate in THC-induced inhibition of MMP-2 expression in glioma cells. As selective CB2 receptor activation to mice has been shown to inhibit the growth and angiogenesis of gliomas (11, 13, 27), skin carcinomas (8) and melanomas (15), our observations further support the possibility of finding cannabinoid-based antitumoral strategies devoid of nondesired psychotropic side effects."

Cristina Bla´zquez, Mar?´a Salazar, Arkaitz Carracedo, Mar Lorente, Ainara Egia, Luis Gonza´lez-Feria, Amador Haro, Guillermo Velasco, and Manuel Guzman, "Cannabinoids Inhibit Glioma Cell Invasion by Down-regulating Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression," Cancer Research (March 2008), p. 1951.

42. Medical Marijuana - Research - 10-27-10

(Cannabidiol (CBD) and Breast Cancer) "Our results, which were obtained in a clinically relevant animal model of ErbB2-positive breast cancer, suggest that these highly aggressive and low responsive tumors could be efficiently treated with nonpsychoactive CB2-selective agonists without affecting the surrounding healthy tissue."

Caffarel, María M; Andradas, Clara; Mira, Emilia; Pérez-Gómez, Eduardo; Cerutti; Camilla; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Flores, Juana; García-Realm, Isabel; Palacios, José; Mañes, Santos; Guzmán, Manuel; Sánchez, Cristina, "Cannabinoids reduce ErbB2-driven breast cancer progression through Akt inhibition," Molecular Cancer (London, United Kingdom: July 22, 2010), p. 1 and P. 8.

43. Medical Marijuana - Research - 6-5-10

(Cannabinoids and Cancer Cells) "Cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana and their other natural and synthetic analogues have been reported as useful adjuvants to conventional chemotherapeutic regimens for preventing nausea, vomiting, pain, and for stimulating appetite. Before the discovery of specific cannabinoid systems and receptors, it was speculated that cannabinoids produced their effects via nonspecific interaction with cell membranes. Cannabinoids are proving to be unique based on their targeted action on cancer cells and their ability to spare normal cells. Variation in the effects of cannabinoids in different cell lines and tumor model could be due to the differential expression of CB1 and CB2 receptors. Thus, overexpression of cannabinoid receptors may be effective in killing tumors, whereas low or no expression of these receptors could lead to cell proliferation and metastasis because of the suppression of the antitumor immune response."

Sarfaraz, Sami; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Syed, Deeba N.; Afaq, Farrukh; and Mukhtar, Hasan, "Cannabinoids for Cancer Treatment: Progress and Promise," Cancer Research (Philadelphia, PA: American Association for Cancer Research, January 2008) Vol. 68, pp. 341-342.

44. Medical Marijuana - Research - 1-6-10

(Cannabidiol (CBD) and Cancer Therapy) "In conclusion, a cannabinoid-based therapeutic strategy for neural diseases devoid of undesired psychotropic side effects could find in CBD [a cannabinoid] a valuable compound in cancer therapies along with the perspective of evaluating a synergistic effect with other cannabinoid molecules and/or with other chemotherapeutic agents as well as with radiotherapy. Whatever the precise mechanism underlying the CBD effects, the present results suggest a possible application of CBD as a promising, nonpsychoactive, antineoplastic agent."

Massi, Paola; Vaccani, Angelo; Ceruti, Stefania; Colombo, Arianna; Abbracchio, Maria P., and Parolaro, Daniela, "Antitumor Effects of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid, on Human Glioma Cell Lines," The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (Bethesda, MD: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, March 2004) Vol. 308, p. 845.

45. Medical Marijuana - Research - 12-22-10

Cannabis and Diabetes

(Cannabinoids and Diabetic Cardiomyopathy) "Remarkably, CBD [Cannabidiol] attenuated myocardial dysfunction, cardiac fibrosis, oxidative/nitrative stress, inflammation, cell death, and interrelated signaling pathways. Furthermore, CBD also attenuated the high glucose-induced increased reactive oxygen species generation, nuclear factor-

Rajesh, Mohanraj; Mukhopadhyay,Partha; Batkai, Sandor; Patel, Vivek; Patel, Keita; Matsumoto, Shingo; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Horvath, Béla; Mukhopadhyay, Bani; Becker, Lauren; Hasko, György; Liaudet, Lucas; Wink, David A.; Veves, Aristidis; Mechoulam, Raphael; Pacher, Pal, "Cannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy," Journal of the American College of Cardiology (San Diego, CA: American College of Cardiology Foundation: December 2010) Vol. 56, No. 25, p. 2115.

46. Medical Marijuana - Research - 6-12-10

(Cannabidiol (CBD) and Diabetic Retinopathy) "Drugs that enhance extracellular adenosine signaling have been of clinical interest in treatment of inflammation after myocardial or cerebral ischemia.25,26 CBD as an anti-inflammatory drug is an attractive alternative to smoking marijuana because of its lack of psychoactive effects.27 CBD is known to be nontoxic in humans,28 which has previously been a problem for other nucleoside inhibitor drugs.29,30"

Liou, Gregory I.; Auchampach, John A.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Zhu, Gu; Yousufzai, Bilal; Salman, Mian; Khan, Sohail; and Khalifa, Yousuf, "Mediation of Cannabidiol Anti-inflammation in the Retina by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter and A2A Adenosine Receptor," Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (Rockville, MD: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, December 2008), Vol. 49, No. 12, p. 5531.

47. Medical Marijuana - Research - 6-12-10

(Cannabidiol (CBD) and Diabetic Retinopathy) "Recent evidence suggests that local inflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. The function of CBD as an antioxidant to block oxidative stress and as an inhibitor of adenosine reuptake to enhance a self-defense mechanism against retinal inflammation represents a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of ophthalmic complications associated with diabetes."

Loiu, George, " Diabetic retinopathy: Role of inflammation and potential therapies for anti-inflammation, " World Journal of Diabetes (Beijing, China: Beijing Baishideng BioMed Scientific Co., March 15, 2010), p. 15.

48. Medical Marijuana - Research - 8-12-10

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment

(Cannabidiol's (CBD's) Potential in Substance Abuse Treatment) "The current study has revealed unique properties of the phytocannabinoid CBD and underscores the contrasting characteristics of the main constituents of cannabis in relation to addiction vulnerability. Compared with the documented effects of THC to enhance heroin self-administration (Solinas et al., 2004; Ellgren et al., 2007), the present data demonstrated that CBD specifically inhibited reinstatement of cue-induced heroin seeking. The specificity of CBD to cue-induced reinstatement was also emphasized by the observation that the compound still inhibited drug relapse behavior in animals extinguished to the environmental context (self-administration chamber) previously associated with heroin. The results are striking given the very selective and protracted effects of CBD."
"Overall, the observations of this study suggest the potential for CBD as a treatment strategy given its specificity to attenuate cue-induced drug-seeking behavior, preferential impact on mesolimbic neuronal populations, and enduring neural actions. Clearly, greater attention needs be given to the potential role of CBD in the treatment of addiction and other mental health disorders."

Ren, Yanhua; Whittard, John; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Morris, Claudia V.; and Yasmin L. Hurd, "Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychotropic Component of Cannabis, Inhibits Cue-Induced Heroin Seeking and Normalizes Discrete Mesolimbic Neuronal Disturbances," The Journal of Neuroscience (Washington, DC: Society for Neuroscience, November 25, 2009), Vol. 29, No. 47, pp. 14767 and 14768.

49. Medical Marijuana - Research - 11-14-10

(Cannabidiol (CBD) and Schizophrenia Treatment) "These studies suggest, therefore, that CBD has an antipsychotic-like profile in healthy volunteers and may possess antipsychotic properties in schizophrenic patients, but not in the resistant ones. Confirming this suggestion, a preliminary report from a 4-week, double-blind controlled clinical trial, using an adequate number of patients and comparing the effects of CBD with amisulpride in acute schizophrenic and schizophreniform psychosis, showed that CBD significantly reduced acute psychotic symptoms after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment when compared to baseline. In this trial CBD did not differ from amisulpride except for a lower incidence of side effects (49).
"In conclusion, results from pre-clinical and clinical studies suggest that CBD is an effective, safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenic patients. Future trials of this cannabinoid in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder (50) and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly needed."

"Zuardi, A.W.; Crippa, J.A.S.; Hallak, J.E.C.; Moreira, F.A.; and Guimarães, F.S., "Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug," Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research (Ribeirão Preto, Brazil: April 2006), Volume 39, Issue 4, p. 427-428.

50. Medical Marijuana - Research - 5-13-12

(Cannabidiol (CBD) As Antipsychotic) "Our results provide evidence that the non-cannabimimetic constituent of marijuana, cannabidiol, exerts clinically relevant antipsychotic effects that are associated with marked tolerability and safety, when compared with current medications."

Leweke, FM; Piomelli, D; Pahlisch, F; Muhl, D; Gerth, CW; Hoyer, C; Klosterkotter, J; Hellmich, M; and Koethe, D, "Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia," Translational Psychiatry (New York, NY: Nature Publishing Company, March 2012), p. 6.