Drug Testing (Student)

1. Prevalence of Student Drug Testing Programs in the US

"For 1998 to 2011 combined, 14% of middle and 28% of high school students attended schools with any SDT; rates for for-cause testing were 10% and 22%, and for any random testing were 6% and 10% (see Table 1). If any for-cause testing had occurred, the volume of students tested in the current year averaged 6 per school for middle and 17 per school for high school students. If any random testing had occurred, the average number of students tested was 80 per school for middle and 178 per school for high school students. Within schools with any random SDT, testing had been in place for more than 3 years for more than half of students (66% middle school; 58% high school), for 2–3 years for approximately one-quarter of students (25% middle school; 29% high school), and implemented in the last or current school year for 9% of middle and 14% of high school students. Few students (2%) attended schools with random drug testing among all students."

Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M., Patrick M. O’Malley, and Lloyd D. Johnston. “Middle and High School Drug Testing and Student Illicit Drug Use: A National Study 1998–2011.” The Journal of adolescent health: official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine 52.6 (2013): 707–715. PMC. Web. 23 Mar. 2017.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/p...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/p...

2. Prevalence of Random Student Drug Testing in the US

"Recent national estimates indicate that 14 percent of U.S. public school districts conducted random drug testing in at least one of their high schools during the 2004–2005 school year (Ringwalt et al. 2008), and since 2003, the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools (OSDFS) has operated a grant program to support MRSDT programs in schools."

Burdumy, James; Brian Goesling, Susanne; Deke, John; and Einspruch, Eric (2010). The Effectiveness of Mandatory-Random Student Drug Testing (NCEE 2010-4025). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, p. 1.
http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/20...

3. Effectiveness of Student Drug Testing Compared With Positive School Climate

"The current research reinforces previous conclusions that SDT is a relatively ineffective drug-prevention policy (Goldberg et al., 2007; Sznitman, 2013a; Yamaguchi et al., 2003). On the other hand, interventions that improve school climate may have greater efficacy. Indeed, 'whole school' health promotion efforts and interventions that work with students, teachers, and parents to develop positive school staff–student relationships and promote students’ security have been found to reduce substance use (Bond et al., 2004;
Fletcher et al., 2008).
"Certainly, schools are important as social and learning environments affecting not only academic achievement but also health behaviors. Young people whose relationships with their fellow students and teachers lack respect are more likely to initiate and escalate use of drugs, as evidenced in this and other studies (Fletcher et al., 2008) and to be subject to other mental health problems (Blum and Libbey, 2004; Catalano et al., 2004; LaRusso et al., 2008). Therefore, the potential consequences of poor school climates for young people’s health are far reaching and deserving of attention."

Sharon R. Sznitman, PhD, and Daniel Romer, PhD, "Student Drug Testing and Positive School Climates: Testing the Relation Between Two School Characteristics and Drug Use Behavior in a Longitudinal Study," Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, Vol. 75, No. 1, January 2014.
http://www.jsad.com/jsad/downl...

4. Prevalence of Drug Use and Risk of Drug Use by Students in the US

"Drug testing of students is more prevalent in schools where drugs are used, kept or sold than in schools that are drug free. While only 23 percent of drug-free schools drug test students, 38 percent of non-drug-free schools conduct some type of drug testing.
"Drug testing is not associated with either significantly lower risk scores or lower estimates of student body drug use. The average risk score of teens attending a school that is not drug free but has drug testing is 1.69; the average risk score of students at non-drug-free schools without drug testing is 1.50. The estimate of students using illegal drugs averages 40 percent for non-drug-free schools with testing and 34 percent at non-drug-free schools without testing."

QEV Analytics, "National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse VIII: Teens and Parents" (New York, NY: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, August 2003), pp. 20-21.
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5. Prevalence of School Drug Testing Programs in the US

"As a matter of fact, the number of schools and school districts actually implementing drug-testing programs is relatively small although not insignificant. From 1998 through 2001, the percentage ranged from just over 14% of schools, peaking at just over 23% in 2000 then down to approximately 16% in 2001.50 According to a 2006 survey, approximately 12% of the nation’s school districts had testing programs with an additional 10% considering them.51"

Stuart, Susan P., "When the Cure is Worse than the Disease: Student Random Drug Testing & Its Empirical Failure," Valparaiso University Law Review (Valparaiso, IN: Valparaiso University Law School, 2010), Volume 44, Number 4, p. 1065.
http://scholar.valpo.edu/cgi/v...

6. Cost of Drug Testing for Schools in the US

"Drug testing, particularly on a per student basis, can be relatively costly for schools. The cost of drug tests ranges depending on the quality of the test. A standard drug test used in some high schools can range from $14 to $30 per test (Volpert & Tremaine, 1997). A standard drug test detects marijuana, tobacco, cocaine, heroin, opiates, amphetamines, barbiturates, and tranquilizers. These tests are able to detect the presence of drugs from within a few days of use to as long as a week or more, depending on the drug in question (Bailey, 1998). A drug test for steroid use costs $100 per test, and a drug test that meets the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) standards for accuracy costs over $200 per test (Volpert & Tremaine, 1997). Alcohol is usually not detected by standard urine drug tests, because it leaves the body quickly; hence, it must be detected with a Breathalyzer test shortly after consumption."

Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D.; and O’Malley, Patrick M., "Drug Testing in Schools: Policies, Practices, and Association With Student Drug Use," Institute for Social Research (Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan, 2003), p. 1.
http://www.yesresearch.org/pub...

7. Deterrence Effect of School Drug Testing

"The deterrent effect of drug and alcohol testing was present for the index of past year illicit drug use and combined drug and alcohol use, each at two follow-up time points. If DAT were to have an impact, the expected deterrent effect likely would be that the policy would alter recent (e.g., past month) use of drugs or drugs and alcohol, since student-athletes were under the threat of testing during that time period, but not during the summer months. However, no differences were noted at any of the four follow-up time points for past month indices of use of drugs or use of drugs and alcohol. With 16 opportunities overall to demonstrate a substance-use deterrent effect during 2 years and four follow-up assessments (Table 3), only four effects were significant. The significant effects for past year drug use and alcohol and drug use were not independent, as both scales included drug use."

Linn Goldberg, MD, Diane L. Elliot, MD, David P. MacKinnon, PhD, Esther L. Moe, PhD, Kerry S. Kuehl, M.D., DrPH, Myeongsun Yoon, MA, Aaron Taylor, MA, and Jason Williams, MA, "Outcomes of a Prospective Trial of Student-Athlete Drug Testing: The Student Athlete Testing Using Random Notification (SATURN) Study," Journal of Adolescent Health 41 (2007), p. 426.
http://proxychi.baremetal.com/...

8. Effectiveness of Drug Testing at Deterring Student Drug Use

"So, does drug testing prevent or inhibit student drug use? Our data suggest that, as practiced in recent years in American secondary schools, it does not. That is different from saying that it could not under any circumstances. The two forms of drug testing that are generally assumed to be most promising for reducing student drug use—random testing applied to all students (and, therefore, also likely applied to those in any extracurricular activities, which may come close to encompassing all students), and testing of athletes—did not produce encouraging results."

Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D.; and O’Malley, Patrick M., "Drug Testing in Schools: Policies, Practices, and Association With Student Drug Use," Institute for Social Research (Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan, 2003), p. 16.
http://www.yesresearch.org/pub...

9. School Drug Testing and Prevention of Use by Students

"Does drug testing prevent or inhibit student drug use? Members of the Supreme Court appear to believe it does. However, among the eighth-, 10th-, and 12-grade students surveyed in this study, school drug testing was not associated with either the prevalence or the frequency of student marijuana use, or of other illicit drug use. Nor was drug testing of athletes associated with lower-than-average marijuana and other illicit drug use by high school male athletes. Even among those who identified themselves as fairly experienced marijuana users, drug testing also was not associated with either the prevalence or the frequency of marijuana or other illicit drug use."

Yamaguchi, Ryoko, Lloyd D. Johnston & Patrick M. O'Malley, Relationship Between Student Illicit Drug Use and School Drug-Testing Policies," Journal of School Health, April 2003, Vol. 73, No. 4, p. 164.
http://www.monitoringthefuture...

10. Effectiveness of Student Drug Testing at Preventing Drug Use

"The 'factual' assertion that student drug testing is an effective deterrent has been proved unsupportable, and indeed false, by empirical and anecdotal evidence. This evidence reveals that student drug testing does not change student drug usage in any way and may, instead, cause more harm than good to the educational function. Students escape detection by changing their drug of choice or changing the time when they indulge. They find ways to mask or change the test results, sometimes dangerously so. As a last resort, students turn to alcohol, clearly not a result that schools would have hoped to happen or what they would have encouraged.88 And the results of even the advocates’ favorite studies show no long-term deterrence."

Stuart, Susan P., "When the Cure is Worse than the Disease: Student Random Drug Testing & Its Empirical Failure," Valparaiso University Law Review (Valparaiso, IN: Valparaiso University Law School, 2010), Volume 44, Number 4, p. 1075.
http://scholar.valpo.edu/cgi/v...

11. Effectiveness of Testing as a Deterrent

"There are still no significant differences in marijuana use or the use of other illicit drugs as a function of whether or not the school has (a) drug testing of any kind, (b) drug testing of students based on cause or suspicion, or (c) drug testing of athletes. Nor is there evidence that the heavy drug-using segment of the student population, specifically, is deterred from using marijuana or other illicit drugs by random or for-cause testing."

Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D.; and O’Malley, Patrick M., "Drug Testing in Schools: Policies, Practices, and Association With Student Drug Use," Institute for Social Research (Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan, 2003), p. 15.
http://www.yesresearch.org/pub...

12. Results of Student Athlete Testing Using Random Notification (SATURN) Study

"No DAT [Drug and Alcohol Testing] deterrent effects were evident for past month use during any of four follow-up periods. Prior-year drug use was reduced in two of four follow-up self-reports, and a combination of drug and alcohol use was reduced at two assessments as well. Overall, drug testing was accompanied by an increase in some risk factors for future substance use. More research is needed before DAT is considered an effective deterrent for school-based athletes."

Linn Goldberg, MD, Diane L. Elliot, MD, David P. MacKinnon, PhD, Esther L. Moe, PhD, Kerry S. Kuehl, M.D., DrPH, Myeongsun Yoon, MA, Aaron Taylor, MA, and Jason Williams, MA, "Outcomes of a Prospective Trial of Student-Athlete Drug Testing: The Student Athlete Testing Using Random Notification (SATURN) Study," Journal of Adolescent Health 41 (2007), p. 421.
http://proxychi.baremetal.com/...

13. Drug Testing as Predictor of Drug Use

"Similar to results for marijuana use, drug testing of any kind and drug testing for cause and suspicion were not significant predictors for use of other illicit drugs among students in grades eight, 10, and 12. Within the high school subsamples, use of illicit drugs among high school male athletes and current marijuana users was not significantly different based on drug testing at the school. Even after controlling for student demographic characteristics, drug testing was not a significant predictor for other illicit drug use in any of the samples."

Yamaguchi, Ryoko, Lloyd D. Johnston & Patrick M. O'Malley, "Relationship Between Student Illicit Drug Use and School Drug-Testing Policies," Journal of School Health, April 2003, Vol. 73, No. 4, p. 163.
http://www.monitoringthefuture...

14. Federal Evaluation of Effectiveness of Mandatory-Random Student Drug Testing (MRSDT) Programs

"To help assess the effects of school-based random drug testing programs, the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences (IES) contracted with RMC Research Corporation and Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an experimental evaluation of the MRSDT programs in 36 high schools within seven districts that received OSDFS [Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools] grants in 2006.
"The study’s key findings indicate that:
"1. Consistent with the goals of the program, students subject to MRSDT reported less substance use than comparable students in high schools without MRSDT. Specifically, student-reported past-30-day use of substances tested under their districts’ MRSDT policies was lower in schools implementing MRSDT than in schools without such policies. A similar, though not statistically significant, pattern was observed on other student-reported substance use measures.
"2. However, the MRSDT program had no 'spillover effects' on the substance use reported by students who were not subject to testing and had no effect on any group of students’ reported intentions to use substances in the future.
"3. Contrary to concerns raised about the possible unintentional negative consequences of random drug testing, the MRSDT program had no effect on the proportion of students participating in activities subject to drug testing or on students’ attitudes toward school and perceived consequences of substance use.
"4. There was some evidence that impacts of the MRSDT program were related to the ways in which the programs were implemented. Both testing for a larger number of substances and testing for alcohol and tobacco were significantly correlated with lower substance use in the treatment schools relative to the control schools. However, it was not possible to distinguish between these two factors due to the fact that districts that tested for a larger number of substances were also those districts that tested for alcohol or tobacco. Impacts were not significantly related to other implementation characteristics examined."

Burdumy, James; Brian Goesling, Susanne; Deke, John; and Einspruch, Eric (2010). The Effectiveness of Mandatory-Random Student Drug Testing (NCEE 2010-4025). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, pp. xvii-xviii
http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/20...

15. Student Drug Testing and Marijuana Use by Athletes in High School

"Drug testing of athletes was not a significant predictor of marijuana use by male athletes in high school."

Yamaguchi, Ryoko, Lloyd D. Johnston & Patrick M. O'Malley, "Relationship Between Student Illicit Drug Use and School Drug-Testing Policies," Journal of School Health, April 2003, Vol. 73, No. 4, p. 163.
http://www.monitoringthefuture...

16. Drug Testing as Predictor of Marijuana Use

"Drug testing of any kind, including for cause or suspicion, was not a significant predictor of marijuana use. These results remained for all samples, even after controlling for student demographic characteristics."

Yamaguchi, Ryoko, Lloyd D. Johnston & Patrick M. O'Malley, "Relationship Between Student Illicit Drug Use and School Drug-Testing Policies," Journal of School Health, April 2003, Vol. 73, No. 4, p. 163.
http://www.monitoringthefuture...

17. Drug Testing as Predictor of Marijuana Use

"In the HLM (Hierarchical Linear Modeling) analyses for students in grades eight, 10, and 12, drug testing (of any kind) was not a significant predictor of student marijuana use in the past 12 months. Neither was drug testing for cause or suspicion."

Yamaguchi, Ryoko, Lloyd D. Johnston & Patrick M. O'Malley, "Relationship Between Student Illicit Drug Use and School Drug-Testing Policies," Journal of School Health, April 2003, Vol. 73, No. 4, p. 163.
http://monitoringthefuture.org...

18. Mandatory-Random Student Drug Testing

Laws & Policy

"One approach to address student substance use is school-based mandatory-random student drug testing (MRSDT). Under MRSDT, students and their parents sign consent forms agreeing to the students’ random drug testing as a condition of participation in athletics and other school-sponsored competitive extracurricular activities. The programs are designed to supplement existing school-based substance use prevention strategies and have the twin goals of (1) identifying students with substance use problems for referral to appropriate counseling or treatment services and (2) deterring substance use among all students."

Burdumy, James; Brian Goesling, Susanne; Deke, John; and Einspruch, Eric (2010). The Effectiveness of Mandatory-Random Student Drug Testing (NCEE 2010-4025). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, p. 1.
http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/20...

19. Student Drug Testing and Supreme Court Precedents

"The Earls and Vernonia [U.S. Supreme Court] rulings show that minors have diminished privacy expectations relative to adults, especially when drug testing is implemented by individuals in a guardian or tutor capacity. Although not dispositive, Earls, Vernonia, and Chandler also illustrate that drug testing programs imposed on a subset of the population that has a 'demonstrated problem of drug abuse' may tilt the balancing test in the government’s favor, especially if the testing program is designed to effectively address the problem."

Carpenter, David H., "Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits," Congressional Research Service (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, January 19, 2012), p. 7.
http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mis...