(Effectiveness of Needle and Syringe Exchange Programs (NSPs) in Sweden) "Alanko-Blomé and colleagues (Alanko-Blomé et al., 2011) have done a follow-up covering the years 1997-2005 of 831 IDUs at the NSP in Malmö. In view of the low HIV prevalence among IDUs in Malmö the study focuses on the incidence of surrogate markers of HIV - particularly hepatitis C, because the risk of HBV infection is affected by the introduction of hepatitis B vaccination. HIV incidence remained very low.
Statistics and other data regarding drugs and drug policies in Sweden, covering all areas including public safety/criminal justice, public health, prevention, treatment, and harm reduction.
(Needle and Syringe Exchange Programs (NSPs) Operating in Sweden) "In Sweden, a county council wishing to open a Needle Exchange Programme (NSP) must seek authorization from the National Board of Health and Welfare. One condition is that the programme be carried out in cooperation with a municipality. A well-functioning drug treatment unit must be present as a partner and the NSP should be run in close cooperation with either the county council ?s department for infectious diseases or the drug dependence department.
(Laws Regulating Narcotics in Sweden, 2012) "In Sweden, narcotic drugs are defined as drugs or goods dangerous to health, with addictive properties or that create a state of euphoria, or goods that can easily be converted to products with such properties or effects, and that, on such basis, are objects for control according to international agreements that Sweden has supported, or have been declared by the Government to be considered illicit drugs according to the law (SFS 1968:64).
(Breath Testing for Other Drugs in DUI Enforcement) "The results of this investigation provide further support to the possibility of using exhaled breath as a readily available specimen for drugs of abuse testing. There is a possibility that exhaled breath will develop into a new matrix for routine drug testing and present an alternative to already used matrices like urine, blood, oral fluid, sweat and hair. Each matrix may have its specific advantages and disadvantages.
(Methadone-Related Mortality in Sweden) "The number of deaths with presence of methadone in the blood has tripled in Sweden during the period 2006-2008. In the same period, there has been a rapid expansion of methadone treatment. In 2005, the regulations on medically assisted substitution treatment were changed in Sweden. The previous restrictions on the number of people who were allowed to participate in treatment at the same time were removed.
(Support for More Evidence-Based Interventions in Sweden) "In January 2010, a preliminary commission report concluded that Swedish health care and social services were of insufficiently quality and not diversified enough in
(Opioid Substitution Treatment in Sweden, 2012) "A vast number of controlled studies show that medication assisted treatment for opioid dependence (e.g. with methadone and buprenorphine) are efficacious in order to 1) prevent drug related deaths6; 2) reduce drug consumption; 3) increase quality of life for injecting drug users (Connock M, 2007). According to National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen, 2012), medication assisted treatment is available at 114 treatment units in Sweden.
(Characteristics of Syringe Exchange Program [SEP] Participants in Sweden) "Last year syringe sharing has occurred in a total of 37 per cent of SEP-users and during the last month in 19 per cent. IDUs [Injection Drug Users] integrated into mainstream society, but not in the subculture, have significantly lower numbers than the rest, 29 per cent and 8 per cent respectively. Most IDUs had previously received some form of drug treatment, a total of 75 per cent.
(Hepatitis B and Injection Drug Use in Sweden, 2012) "Between 100 and 200 cases of acute hepatitis B are reported in Sweden annually. However, fewer cases of acute hepatitis B (82) were reported in 2012 due to fewer cases being reported among injecting drug users. Of all acute hepatitis B cases, 18 were among IDUs (compared with 51 cases in 2010), 17 of whom were infected in Sweden. The median age of IDUs diagnosed with acute hepatitis B in 2012 was 36 (range 19-52) (Smittskyddsinstitutet, 2013).
(Hepatitis C and Injection Drug Use in Sweden 2012) "In Sweden, the prevalence of hepatitis C among injecting drug users is very high. In various studies conducted during the last 15 years, the prevalence has been reported to be between 60% and 92%.