(HIV Related to Injection Drug Use in the EU) "Data on reported newly diagnosed cases related to injecting drug use for 2010 suggest that, overall, infection rates are still falling in the European Union, following a peak in 2001–02. Of the five countries reporting the highest rates of newly diagnosed infections among injecting drug users between 2005 and 2010, Spain and Portugal continued their downward trend, while, among the others, only Latvia reported a small increase (Figure 17) (108).
(International Comparisons of Cocaine Prevalence) "Compared with some other parts of the world for which reliable data exist, the estimated last year prevalence of cocaine use among young adults in Europe (2.1%) is below the levels reported for young adults in Australia (4.8 %) and the United States (4.0% among 16- to 34-year-olds), but close to that reported for Canada (1.8%). Two European countries, Spain (4.4%) and the United Kingdom (4.2%), report figures similar to those of Australia and the United States (Figure 9)."
(Estimated Prevalence of MDMA (Ecstasy) Use in the EU) "MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine) is commonly used in the form of ecstasy tablets, but is also increasingly available as crystals and powders; tablets are usually swallowed, but in powder form the drug is also snorted (nasal insufflation).
"In recent years, monitoring sources based in a number of countries have been signalling new developments within Europe’s MDMA market, including reports of increased use.
(Estimated Prevalence of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine Use in the EU) "Amphetamine and methamphetamine, two closely related stimulants, are both consumed in Europe, although amphetamine is by far the more commonly used. Methamphetamine consumption has historically been restricted to the Czech Republic and, more recently, Slovakia, although recent years have seen increases in use in other countries. In some data sets, it is not possible to distinguish between these two substances; in these cases, the generic term amphetamines is used.
(Prevalence of Heroin and Illegal Opioid Use in the EU) "In Europe, the most commonly used illicit opioid is heroin, which may be smoked, snorted or injected. A range of synthetic opioids such as methadone, buprenorphine and fentanyl are also misused.
(Estimated Prevalence of Cocaine Use in the EU) "Cocaine is the most commonly used illicit stimulant drug in Europe, although its use is more prevalent in the south and west of Europe. Cocaine powder (cocaine hydrochloride) is primarily sniffed (nasal insufflation), but is also sometimes injected, whereas crack cocaine (cocaine base) is usually smoked.
(Per Capita Alcohol Consumption in the EU) "The European Union (EU) is the region with the highest alcohol consumption in the world: in 2009, average adult (aged 15+ years) alcohol consumption in the EU was 12.5 litres of pure alcohol – 27g of pure alcohol or nearly three drinks a day, more than double the world average. Although there are many individual country differences, alcohol consumption in the EU as a whole has continued at a stable level over the past decade."
(Initiation of Drug Use While In Prison) "Imprisonment forces some drug users to stop using drugs, and some will see this as an opportunity to improve their lives. For others, however, prison may be a setting for initiation into drug use or for switching from one drug to another, often due to lack of availability of the preferred drug inside prison (Fazel et al., 2006; Stöver and Weilandt, 2007) and other possible reasons (e.g. use of substances for which avoiding control measures is easier).
(Trends in Drug Supply and Possession Offenses in the EU, 2012) "There has been no major shift in the balance between drug law offences related to use and those related to supply compared with previous years. In most (22) European countries, offences related to drug use or possession for use continued to comprise the majority of drug law offences in 2010, with Spain, France, Hungary, Austria and Turkey reporting the highest proportions (85–93%) (32).
(MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly), Harm Reduction, and Dosage Information) "Apart from warnings issued against dangerous and unexpected pills, dosage makes a difference. In terms of neurotoxicity, several scientific studies pointed out that, among other factors, the probability for possible neurotoxic damage in the serotonergic system grows with the amount of MDMA being consumed.