Cocaine

Cocaine

Cocaine Toxicity or Overdose

(Cocaine Toxicity or Overdose) "An overdose may cause severe anxiety, panic, agitation, aggression, sleeplessness, hallucinations, paranoid delusions, impaired judgment, tremors, seizures, and delirium. Mydriasis and diaphoresis are apparent, and heart rate and BP are increased. Death may result from MI or arrhythmias.

How Cocaine Affects the Brain

(How Cocaine Affects the Brain) "Cocaine is a strong central nervous system stimulant that increases levels of dopamine, a brain chemical (or neurotransmitter) associated with pleasure and movement, in the brain’s reward circuit. Certain brain cells, or neurons, use dopamine to communicate. Normally, dopamine is released by a neuron in response to a pleasurable signal (e.g., the smell of good food), and then recycled back into the cell that released it, thus shutting off the signal between neurons.

Leading Causes of Death 2000

(Leading Causes of Death 2000) "The leading causes of death in 2000 were tobacco (435,000 deaths; 18.1% of total US deaths), poor diet and physical inactivity (400,000 deaths; 16.6%), and alcohol consumption (85,000 deaths; 3.5%). Other actual causes of death were microbial agents (75,000), toxic agents (55,000), motor vehicle crashes (43,000), incidents involving firearms (29,000), sexual behaviors (20,000), and illicit use of drugs (17,000)."

Arrests for Drug Offenses in the US in 2018, By Type of Offense and Substance Type

In 2018, the FBI reports there were a total of 1,654,282 arrests for all drug offenses, of which 224,982 were for sale or manufacture of any drug, and 1,429,300 were for possession of any drug.

• Of the 224,982 sale/manufacture arrests in 2018, 72,788 were for heroin, cocaine, and derivatives; 54,591 were for marijuana; 29,777 were for synthetic or manufactured drugs; and 66,171 were for other dangerous nonnarcotic drugs.

Prevalence of Last-Year Powder Cocaine Use in England and Wales Among People Aged 16 to 59

"As in recent years, the second most commonly used drug in the last year among adults aged 16 to 59 was powder cocaine (2.3% in the 2016/17 survey, equating to around 760,000 people). Powder cocaine was also the second most commonly used drug among young adults aged 16 to 24 (4.8% or around 297,000 young adults) after cannabis. Both proportions remained similar to the previous year (2.2% of 16 to 59 year olds and 4.4% of 16 to 24 year olds in the 2015/16 survey). This trend is illustrated in Figure 1.3.

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