Increasing Involvement Of Benzodiazepines In Opioid Overdose Mortality In The US, 2011: "In 2011, 5,188 opioid-analgesic poisoning deaths also involved benzodiazepines (sedatives used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and seizures), up from 527 such deaths in 1999 (Figure 3). From 2006 through 2011, the number of opioid-analgesic poisoning deaths involving benzodiazepines increased 14% on average each year, while the number of opioid-analgesic poisoning deaths not involving benzodiazepines did not change significantly."
Causes of Death
Information and data on mortality and drug use, including death rates and overdoses. Contains data on the number of deaths in the United States from various causes, including alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, with particular attention to legal and illegal opioids. Also contains information on mortality, drugs, drug overdose, and on the use of Naloxone to reverse opiate overdoses. Sources include official mortality reports from Centers for Disease Control and peer-reviewed journal articles.
"Although the mean annual opioid analgesic overdose mortality rate was lower in states with medical cannabis laws compared with states without such laws, the findings of our secondary analyses deserve further consideration. State-specific characteristics, such as trends in attitudes or health behaviors, may explain variation in medical cannabis laws and opioid analgesic overdose mortality, and we found some evidence that differences in these characteristics contributed to our findings.
Polydrug Involvement in Pharmaceutical Overdose Deaths in the US: "Opioids were frequently implicated in overdose deaths involving other pharmaceuticals. They were involved in the majority of deaths involving benzodiazepines (77.2%), antiepileptic and antiparkinsonism drugs (65.5%), antipsychotic and neuroleptic drugs (58.0%), antidepressants (57.6%), other analgesics, antipyretics, and antirheumatics (56.5%), and other psychotropic drugs (54.2%).
"Of the 36,667 drug overdose deaths with at least one mention of a specific drug, 52% mentioned only one specific drug (18,931 deaths), 26% mentioned two (9,351 deaths), 12% mentioned three (4,521 deaths), 6% mentioned four (2,041 deaths), and 5% mentioned five or more (1,823 deaths). Among drug overdose deaths with at least one mention of a specific drug, the average number of specific drugs mentioned was 1.9.
"In 2016, a total of 34,865 persons died of alcohol-induced causes in the United States (Tables 5, 6, 8, and I–2). This category includes deaths from dependent and nondependent use of alcohol, as well as deaths from accidental poisoning by alcohol. It excludes unintentional injuries, homicides, and other causes indirectly related to alcohol use, as well as deaths due to fetal alcohol syndrome. For a list of alcohol-induced causes, see Technical Notes.
Deaths and Hospitalizations From Use of Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS): "Each year, use of NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) accounts for an estimated 7,600 deaths and 76,000 hospitalizations in the United States." (NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, ketoprofen, and tiaprofenic acid.)
Marijuana Mortality: "Indeed, epidemiological data indicate that in the general population marijuana use is not associated with increased mortality."
Deaths by Suicide in the US: "The age-adjusted death rate increased significantly between 2013 and 2014 for five leading causes: unintentional injuries (2.8%), stroke (0.8%), Alzheimer’s disease (8.1%), suicide (3.2%), and Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis (2.0%)."
According to the CDC, there were 42,773 deaths by suicide in the United States in 2014.
Deaths by Homicide in the US: "Assault (homicide), the 17th leading cause of death in 2014, dropped from among the 15 leading causes of death in 2010 but is still a major issue for some age groups. In 2014, homicide remained among the 15 leading causes of death for age groups 1–4 (3rd), 5–14 (5th), 15–24 (3rd), 25–34 (3rd), 35–44 (5th), and 45–54 (13th)."
According to the CDC, there were a total of 15,809 deaths by assault (homicide) in the US in 2014.