(Estimated Prevalence of Non-Medical Use of Pain Relievers in the US, 2014) "Overall estimates of current nonmedical use of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs among the population aged 12 or older that were described previously have largely been driven by the nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers. In 2014, about two thirds of the current nonmedical users of psychotherapeutic drugs who were aged 12 or older reported current nonmedical use of pain relievers (Figure 5).
(War on Pain Doctors) "The government is waging an aggressive, intemperate, unjustified war on pain doctors. This war bears a remarkable resemblance to the campaign against doctors under the Harrison Act of 1914, which made it a criminal felony for physicians to prescribe narcotics to addicts.
(Factors Influencing Methadone-Related Mortality) "Still, methadone is a potent drug; fatal overdoses have been reported over the years (Baden, 1970; Gardner, 1970; Clark, et al., 1995; Drummer, et al., 1992). As with most other opioids, the primary toxic effect of excessive methadone is respiratory depression and hypoxia, sometimes accompanied by pulmonary edema and/or aspiration pneumonia (White and Irvine, 1999; Harding-Pink, 1993).
(PDMP Growth) "As users become more familiar with the benefits of PDMP report data, requests and the attendant costs to provide them may increase. In Kentucky, Nevada, and Utah, usage has increased substantially, mostly because of the increased number of requests by physicians to check patients' prescription drug histories. In Kentucky, these physician requests increased from 28,307 in 2000, the first full year of operation, to 56,367 in 2001, an increase of nearly 100 percent.
(PDMP start-ups) "Officials from DEA, the Alliance [National Alliance for Model State Drug Laws], and state PDMPs told us that states considering establishing a PDMP, or expanding an existing one, face several challenges. These include educating the public and policymakers about the extent of prescription drug diversion and abuse in their state and the benefits of a PDMP, responding to the concerns of physicians, patients, and pharmacists regarding the confidentiality of prescription information, and funding the cost of program development and operations.
(PDMPs and Neighboring States) "The existence of a PDMP [prescription drug monitoring program] within a state, however, appears to increase drug diversion activities in contiguous non-PDMP states. When states begin to monitor drugs, drug diversion activities tend to spill across boundaries to non-PDMP states. One example is provided by Kentucky, which shares a boundary with seven states, only two of which have PDMPs—Indiana and Illinois.
(Impact of PDMPs on Drugs Being Prescribed) "The presence of a PDMP [prescription drug monitoring program] may also have an impact on the use of drugs more likely to be diverted. For example, DEA rank-ordered all states for 2000 by the number of OxyContin prescriptions per 100,000 people. Eight of the 10 states with the highest number of prescriptions-West Virginia, Alaska, Delaware, New Hampshire, Florida, Pennsylvania, Maine, and Connecticut-had no PDMPs, and only 2 did-Kentucky and Rhode Island.
(Effectiveness of PDMPs) "States with PDMPs [prescription drug monitoring programs] have experienced considerable reductions in the time and effort required by law enforcement and regulatory investigators to explore leads and the merits of possible drug diversion cases. The presence of a PDMP helps a state reduce its illegal drug diversion, but diversion activities may increase in contiguous states without PDMPs."
(PDMPs and Reduction of Diversion) "States with PDMPs have realized benefits in their efforts to reduce drug diversion. These include improving the timeliness of law enforcement and regulatory investigations. For example, Kentucky's state drug control investigators took an average of 156 days to complete the investigation of an alleged doctor shopper prior to the implementation of the state's PDMP. The average investigation time dropped to 16 days after the program was established.