(Federal Drug Offense Convictions Reported to US Sentencing Commission, by Race, FY2012) "The race of drug offenders varied even more widely by the type of drug involved in the offense. More than 45 percent (46.2%) of all drug offenders convicted in federal court were Hispanic, while Black offenders comprised 25.9 percent of all drug offenders and White offenders 25.3 percent of all drug offenders. Yet, in crack cocaine cases, 82.6 percent of those convicted were Black, and in methamphetamine cases 48.1 percent of the offenders were White."
Mandatory Minimum Sentencing
Data, statistics and information regarding mandatory minimum sentencing and sentencing guidelines
(Drug Offense Convictions Reported to US Sentencing Commission, FY2012) "Drug offenses were the second most common federal crime. In fiscal year 2012, 26,560 offenders were convicted of a drug crime, the majority involving the manufacture, sale, or transportation of a drug.5 Of these, 1,451 offenders were convicted of an offense involving simple possession of a drug.
(Disposition of Federal Criminal Cases Reported to US Sentencing Commission, FY2012) "The vast majority of convicted defendants plead guilty. In fiscal year 2012, 97.0 percent of all offenders did so, the highest rate since fiscal year 2002.
(Federal Criminal Offenses Reported to US Sentencing Commission FY2012, by Type) "The vast majority of federal cases involve an individual defendant. Over the last decade, the number of these cases has generally increased each year; however, in fiscal year 2012 the number of cases reported to the Commission fell by 2,028. This represents a decrease of 2.4 percent from fiscal year 2011.
(Offenders Sentenced in Federal Criminal Cases FY2012) "The United States Sentencing Commission1 received information on 84,360 federal criminal cases in which the offender was sentenced in fiscal year 2012.2 Among these cases, 84,173 involved an individual offender and 187 involved a corporation or other 'organizational' offender."
(US Sentencing Guidelines Post-Booker Decision) "For nearly 20 years, federal judges were required to impose sentences within the applicable guideline range unless the court found the existence of an aggravating or mitigating circumstance not adequately taken into consideration by the Commission in formulating the sentencing guidelines.240 This system changed in 2005, when the Supreme Court held in United States v.
(Establishment of US Sentencing Guidelines) "Prior to the Sentencing Reform Act, federal judges possessed almost unlimited authority to fashion an appropriate sentence within a broad statutorily prescribed range and 'decided  the various goals of sentencing, the relevant aggravating and mitigating circumstances, and the way in which these factors would be combined in determining a specific sentence.'232 Sentences were limited only by statutory minimums and maximums.
(Crack Cocaine Offenders by Offender Function) "For crack cocaine offenders, the most common functions for offenders were Street-Level Dealer (47.0%) and Wholesaler (27.9%). The least common functions were Mule (0.2%), Supervisor (0.5%), High Level Supplier/Importer (0.5%), and Manager (0.7%).667
(Heroin Offenders Facing Mandatory Minimums, By Race/Ethnicity) "Slightly more than half of heroin offenders convicted of an offense carrying a mandatory minimum penalty were Hispanic (61.3%, n=672) and about one-quarter (23.4%, n=256) were Black. These percentages shift slightly when examining heroin offenders subject to the mandatory minimum penalty at sentencing. Approximately half of heroin offenders subject to the mandatory minimum penalty at sentencing were Hispanic (51.7%, n=247) and about one-third (35.8%, n=171) were Black.