(Limited Resources Available for Harm Reduction in Ukraine) "In some places in the region, governments struggling with negative health consequences are introducing harm reduction services with international support and under pressure from civil society and international donors. For example in Ukraine, the country with the highest adult HIV prevalence in all of Europe, total annual HIV/AIDS spending has increased over the past few years, totaling for example $30 million in 2011 compared with $23 million in 200969.
International — Drug Control Policies Around The World
(Potential Impact on HIV Transmission in Russia if Opioid Substitution Treatment Were Available) "A dynamic model of HIV transmission among people who inject drugs in Russia suggests that assuming a baseline HIV prevalence of 15%, increasing coverage of OST from 0% to 25% of all people who inject drugs could decrease HIV incidence by between 44% and 53%108."
(Legal and Policy Barriers to Harm Reduction and Disease Prevention Services in Russia) "The main reasons cited for restricting the opportunity of drug users to obtain medical and social aid, including prevention services, are the legislative barriers and official policy course that emphasizes reducing supply through law enforcement and reducing demand by promotion of 'healthy lifestyle'. The Strategy of the Anti-Narcotic Policy of the Russian Federation until 202061 and the plan to implement the strategy reaffirmed that approach.
(Use of Drug Enforcement to Silence Political Opponents) "It is important to note that Russian law enforcement agencies—including the Federal Drug Control Service (FDCS), which has an annual budget of $73 million35—often use drug charges as a way to silence political opponents, including human rights activists and journalists. A few examples:
(Drug Crimes in Russia 2010, by Offense Type) "More than half of all cases are related to drug possession with no intent to supply, which refers primarily to people who use drugs rather than traffickers. This highlights the fact that Russia prioritizes punishment of people who use drugs in its war against illegal drugs, a situation further underscored by the following:
(Criminal Penalties for Drug Possession in Russia) "Although in Russia drug use per se is not criminalized as in Georgia, possession without intent to supply in amounts exceeding 0.5 grams for heroin, opium or desomorphine is considered a crime and is punished by incarceration for up to three years27.
(Cost of Prosecuting Drug Offenders in Russia, 2010) "In 2010 alone, the prosecution of drug offenders (for use and supply) cost at least $100 million in Russia. In comparison, under the Budget Law for 2011, HIV prevention programming is to receive less than 3% of the total $640 million to be allocated in 2012 through the Federal Budget Law for HIV, hepatitis B and C, and the government continues to prohibit internationally accepted drug treatment interventions such as OST [Opioid Substitution Treatment].
(The Science and Practice of Drug Treatment in Russia: Narcology) "The science and practice of drug treatment in Russia – narcology – developed out of psychiatry in close collaboration with other state mechanisms of social control, including police agencies (Elovich and Drucker, 2008). Close links between narcology and police agencies remain (Bobrova et al., 2006).
(Cost to the Russian Economy from Drug-Related Corruption and Money Laundering) "Money laundering continues to cost the Russian economy billions of dollars every year. In 2012, the Central Bank of Russia (CBR) estimated that $49 billion left Russia illegally. Of this, $35 billion left Russia through what the CBR terms 'fictitious transactions,' which according to the CBR includes payment for narcotics, bribes to government officials, and tax evasion.
(Standard Opioid Substitution Treatment Unavailable in Russia) "In particular, Russian law forbids substitution therapy for opioid dependence with methadone or buprenorphine. Naltrexone is the only specific pharmacotherapy that is currently approved for use in the Russian Federation and is available as an oral tablet in extended-release formulations."