"Total global opium production jumped by 65 per cent from 2016 to 2017, to 10,500 tons, easily the highest estimate recorded by UNODC since it started estimating global opium production at the beginning of the twenty-first century.
Possible federal sentences for heroin possession include:
Amount: 1 kilogram or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of heroin.
Sentence: Not less than 10 years or more than life. No person sentenced under this subparagraph shall be eligible for parole during the term of imprisonment.
Amount: 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of heroin.
"The total quantity of heroin seized globally reached a record high in 2016, while the quantities of opium and morphine seized reached the second highest level ever reported. The largest quantities of opiates seized were of opium (658 tons), followed by seizures of heroin (91 tons) and morphine (65 tons). Overall seizures of opiates, expressed in heroin equivalents, increased by almost 50 per cent from 2015 to 2016, of which the quantity of heroin seized exceeded that of opium and morphine.
"An estimated 808,000 people aged 12 or older in 2018 used heroin in the past year (Figure 10), which corresponds to about 0.3 percent of the population (Figure 14). The estimate of past year heroin use in 2018 was higher than the estimates for most years between 2002 and 2008, but it was similar to the estimates in 2009 to 2017.
"Sixteen of 19 CEWG area representatives reported stable or increasing heroin indicators for the 2013 reporting period, compared with 2012. Indicators, including mainly mortality, primary treatment admissions, and some law enforcement indicators, were observed as increasing in Atlanta, Baltimore City and Maryland, Boston, Cincinnati, Denver/Colorado, Maine, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York City, San Francisco, Seattle, South Florida/Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, and Texas.
"This pilot trial is the first in North America to prospectively evaluate a program of naloxone distribution to IDUs [Injection Drug Users] to prevent heroin overdose death. After an 8-hour training, our study participants' knowledge of heroin overdose prevention and management increased, and they reported successful resuscitations during 20 heroin overdose events. All victims were reported to have been unresponsive, cyanotic, or not breathing, but all survived. These findings suggest that IDUs can be trained to respond to heroin overdose by using CPR and naloxone, as others have reported.
"The majority of drug deaths in an Australian study, conducted by the National Alcohol and Drug Research Centre, involved heroin in combination with either alcohol (40 percent) or tranquilizers (30 percent)."
"If it is not pure drugs that kill, but impure drugs and the mixture of drugs, then the myth of the heroin overdose can be dangerous. If users had a guaranteed pure supply of heroin which they relied on, there would be little more likelihood of toxic doses than occur with narcotics administered in a hospital.
"A striking finding from the toxicological data was the relatively small number of subjects in whom morphine only was detected. Most died with more drugs than heroin alone 'on board', with alcohol detected in 45% of subjects and benzodiazepines in just over a quarter. Both of these drugs act as central nervous system depressants and can enhance and prolong the depressant effects of heroin."