Pain Management

Related Chapters:
Addictive Properties
Diversion
Heroin
Heroin Assisted Treatment
Methadone Treatment
Opioid Crisis

Page last updated June 9, 2020 by Doug McVay, Editor/Senior Policy Analyst.

31. Prevalence Of Persistent Pain Among Adults In The US

"Approximately 19.0% of adults in the United States reported persistent pain in 2010, but prevalence rates vary significantly by subgroup (Table 1). Older adults are much more likely to report persistent pain than younger adults, with adults aged 60 to 69 at highest risk (AOR = 4.0, 95% CI = 2.7–5.8). Women are at slightly higher risk than men (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2–1.7), as are adults who did not graduate from high school (AOR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1–1.7). Approximately half of adults who rated their health as fair or poor say they suffer from persistent pain (AOR = 4.7, 95% CI = 3.7–6.0). Recent hospitalization (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3–2.1) and obesity (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3–2.0) are also linked to higher rates of persistent pain. In contrast, Latino (AOR = .5, 95% CI = .4–.6) and African American (AOR = .6, 95% CI = .4–.7) adults are less likely to report persistent pain than their white counterparts."

Jae Kennedy, John M. Roll, Taylor Schraudner, Sean Murphy, and Sterling McPherson, "Prevalence of Persistent Pain in the U.S. Adult Population: New Data From the 2010 National Health Interview Survey," The Journal of Pain, Vol. 15, No. 10 (October), 2014, pp. 979-984. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jp...
http://www.jpain.org/article/S...

32. Significance and Growing Prevalence of Lower Back Pain

"The potential impact of the growing prevalence of pain on the health care system is substantial. Although not all people with chronic low back pain are treated within the health care system, many are, and 'back problems' are one of the nation’s 15 most expensive medical conditions. In 1987, some 3,400 Americans with back problems were treated for every 100,000 people; by 2000, that number had grown to 5,092 per 100,000. At the same time, health care spending for these treatments had grown from $7.9 billion to $17.5 billion. Thorpe and colleagues (2004) estimate that low back pain alone contributed almost 3 percent to the total national increase in health care spending from 1987 to 2000. While about a quarter of the $9.5 billion increase could be attributable to increased population size, and close to a quarter was attributable to increased costs of treatment, more than half of the total (53 percent) was attributable to a rise in the prevalence of back problems."

Institute of Medicine, "Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research" (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2011), p. 64.
http://www.nap.edu/openbook.ph...

33. Rise in Opiate Prescriptions in US

"Even though opioids have been controlled in the United States with regulations and restrictions, opioid utilization has been increasing at an unprecedented pace (1-10). Manchikanti et al (1), in an evaluation of opioid usage over a period of 10 years, showed an overall increase of 149% in retail sales of opioids from 1997 to 2007 in the United States, with an increase of 1,293% for methadone, 866% for oxycodone, and 525% for fentanyl. Similarly, the increase in therapeutic opioid use in the United States in milligrams per person from 1997 to 2007 increased 402% overall, with the highest increase in methadone of 1,124% mg/person and oxycodone of 899% mg/person."

Christo,Paul J.; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Ruan, Xiulu; Bottros, Michael; Hansen, Hans; Solanki, Daneshvari R.; Jordan, Arthur E.; and Colson, James , "Urine Drug Testing In Chronic Pain," Pain Physician (Paducah, KY: American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians, March/April 2011), Vol. 14, Issue 2, p. 124.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/p...
painphysicianjournal.com/...

34. War on Pain Doctors

"The government is waging an aggressive, intemperate, unjustified war on pain doctors. This war bears a remarkable resemblance to the campaign against doctors under the Harrison Act of 1914, which made it a criminal felony for physicians to prescribe narcotics to addicts. In the early 20th century, the prosecutions of doctors were highly publicized by the media and turned public opinion against physicians, painting them not as healers of the sick but as suppliers of narcotics to degenerate addicts and threats to the health and security of the nation."

Libby, Ronald T., "Treating Doctors as Drug Dealers The DEA’s War on Prescription Painkillers," CATO Institute (Washington, DC: June 2005), p. 21.
http://www.csdp.org/research/c...

35. Growth of Federal Oxycontin Investigations and Arrests

"DEA has increased enforcement efforts to prevent abuse and diversion of OxyContin. From fiscal year 1996 through fiscal year 2002, DEA initiated 313 investigations involving OxyContin, resulting in 401 arrests. Most of the investigations and arrests occurred after the initiation of the action plan. Since the plan was enacted, DEA initiated 257 investigations and made 302 arrests in fiscal years 2001 and 2002. Among those arrested were several physicians and pharmacists. Fifteen health care professionals either voluntarily surrendered their controlled substance registrations or were immediately suspended from registration by DEA. In addition, DEA reported that $1,077,500 in fines was assessed and $742,678 in cash was seized by law enforcement agencies in OxyContin-related cases in 2001 and 2002."

General Accounting Office, "Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem," GAO-04-110 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, Dec. 2003), p. 37.
http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d...

36. Prevalence of Neuropathic Pain

"Neuropathic pain (NP) is defined as pain caused by a lesion or disease of the central or peripheral somatosensory nervous system.[1] NP affects between 5% and 10% of the US population [2] and examples include diabetic neuropathy, complex regional pain syndrome, radiculopathy, phantom limb pain, HIV sensory neuropathy, multiple sclerosis-related pain, and poststroke pain.[3]"

Collen, Mark, "Prescribing Cannabis for Harm Reduction," Harm Reduction Journal (London, United Kingdom: January 2012) Vol. 9, Issue 1, p. 1.
http://www.harmreductionjourna...

37. Pain-Related Lost Productivity

Researchers used data from the American Productivity Audit to measure lost productivity in the US due to common pain conditions. In an article published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2003, they reported that "Overall, the estimated $61.2 billion per year in pain-related lost productive time in our study accounts for 27% of the total estimated work-related cost of pain conditions in the US workforce."

Stewart, Walter F., PhD, MPH, Judith A. Ricci, ScD, MS, Elsbeth Chee, ScD, David Morganstein, MS, Richard Lipton, MD, "Lost Productive Time and Cost Due to Common Pain Conditions in the US Workforce," Journal of the American Medical Association (Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, Nov. 12, 2003), Vol. 290, No. 18, p. 2449.
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/ar...

38. Limited Data Available on Pain Treatment

"National survey data that provide detailed data on use of treatments are limited. Of the common pain conditions, sufficient details have only been reported on migraine headaches. Recent data indicate that only 41% of individuals who have migraine headaches in the US population ever receive any prescription drug for migraine. Only 29% report that satisfaction with treatment is moderate, especially among those who are often disabled by their episodes. Randomized trials demonstrate that optimal therapy for migraine dramatically reduces headache-related disability time in comparison with usual care."

Stewart, Walter F., PhD, MPH, Judith A. Ricci, ScD, MS, Elsbeth Chee, ScD, David Morganstein, MS, Richard Lipton, MD, "Lost Productive Time and Cost Due to Common Pain Conditions in the US Workforce," Journal of the American Medical Association (Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, Nov. 12, 2003), Vol. 290, No. 18, p. 2453.
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/ar...

39. Cost of Pain-Related Lost Productivity

"Our estimate of $61.2 billion per year in pain-related lost productive time does not include costs from4 other causes. First, we did not include lost productive time costs associated with dental pain, cancer pain, gastrointestinal pain, neuropathy, or pain associated with menstruation. Second, we do not account for pain-induced disability that leads to continuous absence of 1 week or more. Third, we did not consider secondary costs from other factors such as the hiring and training of replacement workers or the institutional effect among coworkers. Taking these other factors into consideration could increase, decrease, or have no net effect on health-related lost productive time cost estimates. Fourth, we may be prone to underestimating current lost productive time among those with persistent pain problems (eg, chronic daily headache). To the extent that these workers remain employed,they may adjust both their performance and perception of their performance over time. The latter, a form of perceptual accommodation, makes it difficult to accurately ascertain the impact of a chronic pain condition on work in the recent past through self-report."

Stewart, Walter F., PhD, MPH, Judith A. Ricci, ScD, MS, Elsbeth Chee, ScD, David Morganstein, MS, Richard Lipton, MD, "Lost Productive Time and Cost Due to Common Pain Conditions in the US Workforce," Journal of the American Medical Association (Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, Nov. 12, 2003), Vol. 290, No. 18, p. 2452.
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/ar...

40. Populations At Increased Risk For Chronic Pain And For Inadequate Treatment

"An important message from epidemiologic studies cited by Blyth and colleagues (2010) is 'the universal presence across populations of characteristic subgroups of people with an underlying propensity or increased risk for chronic pain, in the context of a wide range of different precipitating or underlying diseases and injuries' (p. 282). These vulnerable subgroups are most often those of concern to public health.5 Increased vulnerability to pain is associated with the following:
"• having English as a second language,
"• race and ethnicity,
"• income and education,
"• sex and gender,
"• age group,
"• geographic location,
"• military veterans,
"• cognitive impairments,
"• surgical patients,
"• cancer patients, and
"• the end of life.
"Many of these same groups also are at risk of inadequate treatment."

Institute of Medicine, "Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research" (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2011), pp. 64-65.
http://www.nap.edu/openbook.ph...

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