"Drug use often develops from being occasional to problematic: ties with close family members and non-using friends are gradually severed, while school and professional performance can be seriously affected and may come to a premature end. As a consequence, the normal process of socialisation, the integration of an individual from adolescence to adulthood as an independent, autonomous member of society, is jeopardised and this often leads to a gradual exclusion into the margins of society. However, this is a two-sided process.
"In terms of the historical development of this intervention, the first supervised drug consumption room was opened in Berne, Switzerland in June 1986. Further facilities of this type were established in subsequent years in Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Norway, Luxembourg, Denmark, Greece and France. A total of 78 official drug consumption facilities currently operate in seven EMCDDA reporting countries, following the opening of the first two drug consumption facilities in the framework of a 6-year trial in France in 2016.
(Median Prison Population Rate and Number of People Serving Time in Prisons in the Europe)
"2. The median European Prison Population Rate [PPR] was 124.0 inmates per 100 000 inhabitants.
There was noted an increase of +4% compared to 2012 (125.6 inmates per 100,000 inhabitants). As median calculated values are less sensitive to the extreme figures (i.e. very low prison population rates in small countries with less than 1mln inhabitants), it is preferable to use these values as a more( reliable alternative to the average figures.
(People Serving Time in Prison in the EU for Drug Offenses) "Inmates were sentenced mainly for the following types of criminal offences: drug offences (18%), theft (16%), robbery (14%), and homicide (12%)."
(Opioids Do Not Have Potential To Cause Malformations To An Embryo Or Fetus) "It is important to note that, contrary to alcohol, benzodiazepines and nicotine, opioids do not have teratogenic potential (3). Thus, special attention needs to be paid to dependence and abuse of legal substances and prescription drugs that can have severe consequences for the foetus and newborn, such as foetal developmental disorders or sudden infant death syndrome (Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Center for Excellence, 2013; McDonnell-Naughton et al., 2012)."
(Risk and Treatability of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome) "Untreated opiate dependence in pregnant women is associated with many environmental and medical factors that contribute to poor maternal and child outcomes. Illicit opioid consumption is associated with a sixfold increase in obstetric complications such as low birth weight, toxaemia, third trimester bleeding, malpresentation, puerperal morbidity (2), foetal distress and meconium aspiration.
(Public Expenditure on Drug Law Offenders in Prison in the European Union) "Within this framework, the EMCDDA has calculated a range of estimates of public expenditures on drug-law offenders in prison. The low estimate considers only those prisoners who have been sentenced for a drug-law offence. The high estimate also includes pre-trial prisoners who may be sentenced for a drug-law offence (assuming that the proportion of drug-law offenders among pre-trial prisoners is identical to that of drug-law offenders among sentenced prisoners).
(SIFs and Referrals to Treatment) "A more controversial approach has been adopted in some cities in Europe, where the concept of safe consumption rooms, usually targeting drug injection, has been extended to drug inhalation. Rooms for supervised inhalation have been opened in several Dutch, German and Swiss cities (EMCDDA, 2004c).
(Prevalence of Mephedrone and Synthetic Cathinone Use in the EU) "Synthetic cathinones, such as mephedrone and MPDV, have now carved a space in the illicit stimulants market in some countries. The limited information available suggests that prevalence levels remain low. Repeat surveys that include cathinones are only available for the United Kingdom (England and Wales). In the most recent survey (2012/13), last year use of mephedrone among adults aged 16 to 59 was estimated at 0.5 %, a decrease from 1.1 % in 2011/12 and 1.4 % in 2010/11.
(Prevalence of Cannabis Use Among Young People in the European Union) "The most prevalent illicit drug in all ESPAD countries is cannabis. On average, 16 % of the students have used cannabis at least once in their lifetime (Table 7a). The country with the highest prevalence of cannabis use was the Czech Republic (37 %). High prevalence rates (30% or more) were also reported in France, Liechtenstein and Monaco.