Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)

Mortality Risk from MDMA Use

(Mortality Risk from MDMA Use) "Hall and Henry (2006) reviewed the medical scenarios and treatment options for physicians dealing with MDMA-related medical emergencies: ‘Hyperpyrexia and multi-organ failure are now relatively well-known, other serious effects have become apparent more recently. Patients with acute MDMA toxicity may present to doctors working in Anaesthesia, Intensive Care, and Emergency Medicine. A broad knowledge of these pathologies and their treatment is necessary for those working in an acute medicine speciality’.

MDMA Mortality Risk

(MDMA Mortality Risk) "Schifano et al. (2010) analysed the government data on recreational stimulant deaths in the UK between 1997 and 2007. Over this period, there were 832 deaths related to amphetamine or methamphetamine and 605 deaths related to Ecstasy/MDMA. Many were related to multiple-drug ingestion or ‘polydrug’ use. However, in the analysis of ‘mono-intoxication’ fatalities, Schifano et al. (2010) found that deaths following Ecstasy use were significantly more represented than deaths following amphetamine/methamphetamine use (p < 0.007)."

Global Prevalence of Ecstasy Use, 2012

(Global Prevalence of Ecstasy Use, 2012) "With between 9.4 million and 28.2 million estimated past-year users in 2012, its use declined globally in the period 2010-2012, mainly in Western and Central Europe. Nevertheless, Oceania (2.9 per cent), North America (0.9 per cent) and Europe (0.5 per cent) remain regions with prevalence rates higher than the global average of 0.4 per cent."

Psilocybin and Addiction

(Psilocybin and Addiction) "The results of the present study have implications for understanding the abuse of hallucinogens. Although psilocybin is regulated by the federal government under the most restrictive category (Schedule I) of the Controlled Substances Act, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (2001, 2005) does not consider psilocybin and the other classical hallucinogens to be drugs of 'addiction' because they do not produce compulsive drug-seeking behavior as do classic addicting drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, heroin, and alcohol.

Prevalence of Ecstasy Use in Spain, 2011

(Prevalence of Ecstasy Use in Spain, 2011) "Among the illicit psychoactive substances, ecstasy is ranked next in importance after cannabis and cocaine in Spain. In 2011, an overall drop has been reported in the use of ecstasy for the three customary time-related indicators (by 3.6% among sometime in their lives population, by 0.7% for the last 12 months and by 0.3% within the last 30 days). (Fig. 2.25).

Estimated Prevalence of MDMA (Ecstasy) Use in the EU

(Estimated Prevalence of MDMA (Ecstasy) Use in the EU) "MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine) is commonly used in the form of ecstasy tablets, but is also increasingly available as crystals and powders; tablets are usually swallowed, but in powder form the drug is also snorted (nasal insufflation).
"In recent years, monitoring sources based in a number of countries have been signalling new developments within Europe’s MDMA market, including reports of increased use.

MDMA's Effects on Cognitive Performance

(MDMA's Effects on Cognitive Performance) Studies have indicated that individuals who have used MDMA may have decreased performance in memory tests compared to nonusers. These studies are presently controversial because they involved people who used a variety of other drugs. Furthermore, it is difficult to rule out possible pre-existing differences between research subjects and controls.

MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly), Harm Reduction, and Dosage Information

(MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly), Harm Reduction, and Dosage Information) "Apart from warnings issued against dangerous and unexpected pills, dosage makes a difference. In terms of neurotoxicity, several scientific studies pointed out that, among other factors, the probability for possible neurotoxic damage in the serotonergic system grows with the amount of MDMA being consumed.

MDMA (Ecstasy) and Harm Reduction

(MDMA (Ecstasy) and Harm Reduction) "In the context of new synthetic drugs there are some well-established approaches to reduce harm such as handing out condoms for free or giving out drinking water to reduce or stabilise body temperature and to avoid heatstroke. In addition, there are possible harms in the party scene that can be countered by pill-testing projects only. All pill-testing projects inform consumers about very dangerous and unexpected pills on site, through magazines and posters or through the Internet."

MDMA Therapy Benefits

(MDMA Therapy Benefits) "It is notable that no subjects reported any harm from study participation and all of them reported some degree of benefit. Consistent with the investigators‘ clinical observations in the original study, the responses we obtained on the questionnaire indicated that participants often experienced benefits beyond decreased PTSD symptoms.