Drug Test Positivity Rates for Heroin and Other Opiates Among US Workers Subject to Drug Testing

"After four straight years of increases, in 2016, urine testing positivity for heroin, indicated by the presence of the 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) metabolite, held steady in the general U.S. workforce and declined slightly among federally-mandated, safety-sensitive workers.
"Prescription opiate positivity – including hydrocodone, hydromorphone and oxycodones – declined in urine testing among the general U.S. workforce. Oxycodones have exhibited four consecutive years of declines, dropping 28 percent from 0.96 percent in 2012 to 0.69 percent in 2016. Hydrocodone and hydromorphone both showed double-digit declines in both 2015 and 2016 (0.92% in 2015 to 0.81% in 2016) and (0.67% in 2015 to 0.59% in 2016), respectively.
"In recent years, state and federal authorities have instituted efforts to more tightly control opiate prescribing in order to address the opioid crisis."

Source: 

"Quest Diagnostics Drug Testing Index™ Full year 2016 tables," Quest Diagnostics, Table 2, last accessed Nov. 13, 2017.
http://www.questdiagnostics.co...
http://www.questdiagnostics.co...
"Increases in Illicit Drugs, Including Cocaine, Drive Workforce Drug Positivity to Highest Rate in 12 Years, Quest Diagnostics Analysis Finds," Quest Diagnostics, May 16, 2017.
http://newsroom.questdiagnosti...

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