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(Extent Of Use And Types Of Pain Conditions For Which Complementary And Alternative Medicine (CAM) Are Used In The US) "For which pain conditions are CAM treatments most often used?

Source: 
Institute of Medicine, "Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research" (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2011), p. 135.
http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13172

(Reasons People Use Complementary And Alternative Medicines (CAM) For Pain Management) "CAM holds special appeal for many people with pain for several reasons:
"• deficits in the way that many physicians treat pain, using only single modalities without attempting to track their effectiveness for a particular person over time or to coordinate diverse approaches;
"• the higher preponderance of pain in women (see Chapter 2), given that 'women are more likely than men to seek CAM treatments; (IOM, 2005, p. 10); and

Source: 
Institute of Medicine, "Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research" (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2011), pp. 134-135.
http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13172


Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Approaches to Pain Management

Source: 
Institute of Medicine, "Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research" (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2011), p. 134.
http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13172

(Increasing Involvement Of Benzodiazepines In Opioid Overdose Mortality In The US, 2011) "In 2011, 5,188 opioid-analgesic poisoning deaths also involved benzodiazepines (sedatives used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and seizures), up from 527 such deaths in 1999 (Figure 3). From 2006 through 2011, the number of opioid-analgesic poisoning deaths involving benzodiazepines increased 14% on average each year, while the number of opioid-analgesic poisoning deaths not involving benzodiazepines did not change significantly."

Source: 
Chen, LH, Hedegaard, H, and Warner, M. Drug-poisoning deaths involving opioid analgesics: United States, 1999–2011. NCHS data brief, No. 166. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2014, p. 3.
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db166.htm
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db166.pdf

(Opioid Overdose Deaths In The US 2011) "In 2011, there were 41,340 deaths due to drug poisoning; 41% (16,917 deaths) of them involved opioid analgesics. From 1999 through 2011, the rate for opioid-analgesic poisoning deaths almost quadrupled from 1.4 per 100,000 in 1999 to 5.4 per 100,000 in 2011 (Figure 1). The death rate increased at a faster pace from 1999 through 2006 (18% increase each year) than from 2006 through 2011 (3% increase each year).

Source: 
Chen, LH, Hedegaard, H, and Warner, M. Drug-poisoning deaths involving opioid analgesics: United States, 1999–2011. NCHS data brief, No. 166. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2014, p. 2.
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db166.htm
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db166.pdf

Estimated Substance Use In The US, By Gender

(Estimated Substance Use In The US, 2013, By Gender)
"• In 2013, as in prior years, the rate of current illicit drug use among persons aged 12 or older was higher for males (11.5 percent) than for females (7.3 percent). Males were more likely than females to be current users of several different illicit drugs, including marijuana (9.7 vs. 5.6 percent), cocaine (0.8 vs. 0.4 percent), and hallucinogens (0.7 vs. 0.3 percent).

Source: 
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014, p. 25.
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2013SummNatFindDetTables/Index.aspx
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2013SummNatFindDetTables/NationalFindin...

(NSDUH Method For Determining Prevalence Of Substance Use Disorders) "The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) includes a series of questions to assess the prevalence of substance use disorders (substance dependence or abuse) in the past 12 months. Substances include alcohol and illicit drugs, such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, and the nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutic drugs.

Source: 
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014, p. 81.
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2013SummNatFindDetTables/Index.aspx
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2013SummNatFindDetTables/NationalFindin...

(NSDUH's Method For Estimating Prevalence Of Substance Use Disorders In The US) "The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) includes a series of questions to assess the prevalence of substance use disorders (substance dependence or abuse) in the past 12 months. Substances include alcohol and illicit drugs, such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, and the nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutic drugs.

Source: 
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014, p. 81.
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2013SummNatFindDetTables/Index.aspx
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2013SummNatFindDetTables/NationalFindin...

(Balancing Control And Availability In Pain Management) "Because opioid analgesics have both a medical indication and an abuse liability, their prescribing, dispensing, and administration, indeed their very availability in commerce, is governed by a combination of policies, including international treaties and U.S. federal and state laws and regulations. The main purpose of these policies is drug control: to prevent diversion and abuse of prescription medications.

Source: 
Pain & Policy Studies Group. Achieving Balance in Federal and State Pain Policy: A Guide to Evaluation (CY 2013). (University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center: Madison, WI, July 2014), p. 17.
http://www.painpolicy.wisc.edu/achieving-balance-federal-and-state-pain-...
http://www.painpolicy.wisc.edu/sites/www.painpolicy.wisc.edu/files/evalg...

(Number Of Persons In The US Serving Prison Sentences Rises, Yet Imprisonment Rate Falls) "The U.S. population grew at a faster rate in 2013 than the prison population, causing a decline in the imprisonment rates despite an increase in the number of sentenced prisoners. On December 31, 2013, the imprisonment rate for U.S. residents of all ages was 478 sentenced prisoners per 100,000, and for U.S. residents age 18 or older it was 623 per 100,000 (table 5).

Source: 
Carson, E. Ann. Prisoners In 2013. Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sept. 2014, NCJ247282, p. 6.
http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5109
http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p13.pdf
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