recent posts for dwf_admin
(Drug Positive Rates In Combined US Workforce, 2012 and Trends)
" Positivity rates for amphetamines, including amphetamine and methamphetamine, has nearly tripled
(196% higher) in the combined U.S. workforce and, in 2012, were at the highest level since 1997.
The positivity rate for amphetamine itself, including prescription medications such as Adderall®, has
more than doubled in the last 10 years."
" Positivity rates for prescription opiates, which include the drugs hydrocodone, hydromorphone,
(Prevalence of Needle Sharing Among Young Adults Aged 21-30 in the US)
" The proportion of 21- to 30-year-olds who say they have ever shared needles in this way during their lifetime is 0.5% overall—0.5% of males and 0.4% of females (Table 1a). As noted in the next section, 1.6% of the full samples say they have ever injected a drug, so this indicates that a minority — but still nearly a third — of the people injecting any of the several drug classes mentioned in the question (heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, or steroids) shared a needle at some time.
(Prevalence of Injection Drug Use Among Young Adults Aged 21-30 in the US)
(Known Therapeutic Benefits From Medicinal Cannabinoids) "Evidence is accumulating that cannabinoids may be useful medicine for certain indications. Control of nausea and vomiting and the promotion of weight gain in chronic inanition are already licensed uses of oral THC (dronabinol capsules). Recent research indicates that cannabis may also be effective in the treatment of painful peripheral neuropathy and muscle spasticity from conditions such as multiple sclerosis . Other indications have been proposed, but adequate clinical trials have not been conducted.
(Known Therapeutic Benefits From Medicinal Cannabinoids) "Cannabis preparations exert numerous therapeutic effects. They have antispastic, analgesic, antiemetic, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory actions, and are effective against certain psychiatric diseases. Currently, however, only one cannabis extract is approved for use. It contains THC and CBD in a 1:1 ratio and was licensed in 2011 for treatment of moderate to severe refractory spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS).
(Stigmatization and Inhumane Treatment of Krokodil Users) "In Russia and many other post-Soviet countries, the old ideology lingers on in narcological institutes, out of sync with modern public and mental health concepts (Grund et al., 2009). Many narcologists continue to view addiction as criminal or moral deviance and not as a disease. Narcological dispensaries continue to share information with law enforcement (Mendelevich, 2011). The threat of removal of child custody rights may impede women’s access to health care in particular (Shields, 2009).
(Harms Associated with Krokodil Use) "In recent years, harm reduction and drug treatment services from Russia, Ukraine, Georgia and Kazakhstan began reporting severe health consequences associated with krokodil injecting. Although serious localized and systemic harms have previously been associated with injecting homemade opiates and stimulants in the region (Grund, 2002; Volik, 2008), the harms associated with krokodil injecting are extreme and unprecedented.
(Krokodil - Reasons and Risks) "In sum, these observations suggest that the relatively limited availability of black market opiates and stimulants and the relative ease of harvesting legal precursors to powerful analogues from the countryside and pharmacies inspired and sustained a Soviet-style homemade drug culture in the Eastern European region that remains radically different from those observed in countries where narco-traffickers dominate the production and distribution of drugs (Booth, Kennedy, Brewster, & Semerik, 2003; Grund et al., 2009; Grund, 2005; Subata &
(Prevalence of Krokodile Use) "The estimated number of PWID in Russia was close to 2 million in 2008 (Mathers et al., 2008). 2.3% of the Russian population uses opioids annually and 1.4% heroin, compared to an annual prevalence of 0.4% opioid use in Western and Central Europe (UNODC, 2012).
(Krokodil Production) "In considering the drug krokodil, two aspects are of importance, its pharmacology and its chemistry. The short half-life, limited high after the impact effect and, in particular the need for frequent administration may narrow the attention of users on the (circular) process of acquiring, preparing and administering the drug, leaving little time for matters other than avoiding withdrawal and chasing high, as reported in several popular magazines (e.g. Shuster, 2011; Walker, 2011).