Skip navigation.
Home

recent posts for dwf_admin

(US States Which Have Legalized Marijuana) Eight states have legalized adult (aged 21 and older) personal use of marijuana and legally regulate the production, distribution, and sale of marijuana: Alaska, California, Colorado, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington state. The District of Columbia legalized personal possession and cultivation of marijuana by adults aged 21 and older.

(Toxic Effects of Kratom) "During the past 3 years, there have been an increasing number of case reports15,17,29 describing unusual adverse reactions in patients who had been using kratom or kratom-based products. The acute adverse effects of kratom experienced by many users appear to be a direct result of kratom's stimulant and opioid activities.6,9,11,30,31 Stimulant effects may manifest themselves in some individuals as anxiety, irritability, and increased aggression. Opioid-like effects include sedation, nausea, constipation, and itching.

Source: 
Prozialeck, WC, Jivan, JK, and Andurkar, SV. Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. December 2012;112(12):792-9.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23212430
http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2094342

(Analgesic and opioid-like effects of Kratom) "In Southeast Asia, kratom has long been used for the management of pain and opium withdrawal.6,9-11,14 In the West, kratom is increasingly being used by individuals for the self-management of pain or withdrawal from opioid drugs such as heroin and prescription pain relievers.20,27 It is these aspects of kratom pharmacology that have received the most scientific attention.

Source: 
Prozialeck, WC, Jivan, JK, and Andurkar, SV. Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. December 2012;112(12):792-9.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23212430
http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2094342

(Current Legal Status of Kratom in the US) "Although the findings of our literature and Internet searches strongly suggest a marked increase in kratom use in the United States and Europe, kratom still appears to be somewhat of an 'underground phenomenon.' During our searches of the literature and the internet, we found no evidence that kratom is currently marketed by any of the large nutritional supplement chain stores in the United States.

Source: 
Prozialeck, WC, Jivan, JK, and Andurkar, SV. Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. December 2012;112(12):792-9.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23212430
http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2094342

(Current Use of Kratom in the US) "Evidence suggests that kratom is being used extensively for both medical and nonmedical purposes. Recent studies have shown that kratom contains a variety of active compounds that produce major pharmacologic effects at opioid and other receptors. Kratom and kratom-derived drugs may potentially be used for the management of pain, opioid withdrawal symptoms, and other clinical problems. At the same time, serious questions remain regarding the potential toxic effects and the abuse and addiction potential of kratom.

Source: 
Prozialeck, WC, Jivan, JK, and Andurkar, SV. Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. December 2012;112(12):792-9.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23212430
http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2094342

(Services Made Available to Clients by Drug Courts, Mental Health Courts, and Standard Courts in the US)

Source: 
Strong, Suzanne M., PhD, Rantala, Ramona R., and Kyckelhahn, Tracey, PhD. Census of Problem-Solving Courts, 2012. Bureau of Justice Statistics. September 2016, NCJ249803. Page 18, Appendix Table 6.
http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5744
http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpsc12.pdf

(Annual Number of Arrests for Drug Offenses in the US By Type of Offense)

Services Made Available to Clients by Drug Courts, Mental Health Courts, and Standard Courts in the US
Figures in Percent
Type of Service All courts Drug Courts Mental Health Courts
Treatment
Annual Number of Arrests for Drug Offenses in the US, by Type of Offense
Sale/Manufacture Possession
Year Total Drug Arrests Sale/Manu.
Any Drug
Source: 
"Crime in the United States 2015 - Arrests," FBI Uniform Crime Report (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, September 2016), p. 1, and Arrest Table: Arrests for Drug Abuse Violations.
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2015/crime-in-the-u.s.-2015/home
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2015/crime-in-the-u.s.-2015/persons...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2015/crime-in-the-u.s.-2015/persons...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2015/crime-in-the-u.s.-2015/tables/...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2015/crime-in-the-u.s.-2015/tables/...
"Crime in the United States 2014 - Arrests," FBI Uniform Crime Report (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, September 2016), p. 1.
https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2014/crime-in-the...
https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2014/crime-in-the...
"Crime in the United States 2013 - Arrests," FBI Uniform Crime Report (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, November 2014), p. 1.
http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2013/crime-in-the-...
http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2013/crime-in-the-...
www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2013/crime-in-the-u.s.-20...
"Crime in the United States 2012 - Arrests," FBI Uniform Crime Report (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, September 2013), p. 1.
http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2012/crime-in-the-...
http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2012/crime-in-the-...
"Crime in the United States 2011 - Arrests," FBI Uniform Crime Report (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, October 2012), p. 1.
http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2011/crime-in-the-...
Arrests for Drug Abuse Violations: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2011/crime-in-the-...
"Crime in the United States 2010," FBI Uniform Crime Report (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, September 2011), Table 29.
http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2010/crime-in-the-...
Arrests for Drug Abuse Violations: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2010/crime-in-the-...

(Clients Enter Drug Courts At Different Points In The Process Depending On The Court) "Problem-solving courts varied by the point at which they intervene in a case. Some courts took cases that had reached a specific processing stage, while others took on cases at multiple processing points. Additionally, problem-solving courts accepted multiple case types and identified different entry points for criminal or civil and family cases.

Source: 
Strong, Suzanne M., PhD, Rantala, Ramona R., and Kyckelhahn, Tracey, PhD. Census of Problem-Solving Courts, 2012. Bureau of Justice Statistics. September 2016, NCJ249803. Page 6.
http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5744
http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpsc12.pdf

(Factors in the Transition from Prescription Opiate Use to Heroin Use) "Multiple studies that have examined why some persons who abuse prescription opioids initiate heroin use indicate that the cost and availability of heroin were primary factors in this process.

Source: 
Wilson M. Compton, M.D., M.P.E., Christopher M. Jones, Pharm.D., M.P.H., and Grant T. Baldwin, Ph.D., M.P.H. Relationship between Nonmedical Prescription-Opioid Use and Heroin Use. N Engl J Med 2016; 374:154-163. January 14, 2016. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1508490
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1508490
http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMra1508490

Overview

Source: 
Wilson M. Compton, M.D., M.P.E., Christopher M. Jones, Pharm.D., M.P.H., and Grant T. Baldwin, Ph.D., M.P.H. Relationship between Nonmedical Prescription-Opioid Use and Heroin Use. N Engl J Med 2016; 374:154-163. January 14, 2016. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1508490
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1508490
Syndicate content