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(Syringe Exchange Data And Trends For The Netherlands, 2012)
"• In Amsterdam, figures are available since 1990. After a steady increase until 1993 (1,082,880 syringes were exchanged in that year), the number of exchanged syringes declined and slightly fluctuates below 200,000 syringes per year since 2007 (146,000 in 2012) (source: M. Buster, GGD Amsterdam).

Source: 
Van Laar M.W., Cruts G, Van Ooyen-Houben M., Croes E., Van der Pol P., Meijer, R., Ketelaars T., (2014). The Netherlands drug situation 2013: report to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point. Trimbos-instituut/WODC, Utrecht/Den Haag, p. 87.
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index228325EN.html
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_228332_EN_EMCDDA_NR%202...

(Estimated Prevalence Of Substance Use Among Drivers In Fatal Auto Accidents) "Overall, 23,591 (90.9%) of the 25,951 drivers who died within 1 hour of a crash in these 6 states underwent toxicological testing. Drivers who were tested for drugs were similar in crash circumstances to those who were not tested, but they appeared to be slightly younger (mean age = 39.4 (standard deviation, 19.4) years vs. 43.4 (standard deviation, 27.7) years), more likely to be male (77.7% vs. 75.8%), more likely to be involved in nighttime crashes (51.4% vs.

Source: 
Joanne E. Brady and Guohua Li. "Trends in Alcohol and Other Drugs Detected in Fatally Injured Drivers in the United States, 1999–2010." American Journal of Epidemiology. (2014) 179 (6): 692-699. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwt327.
http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/179/6/692

(Odds Of Involvement In Fatal Auto Accidents Associated With Use Of Various Substances) "The prevalence of drugs detected in cases was higher than in controls across the drug categories (Table 3). Marijuana, narcotics, stimulants, and depressants were each associated with a significantly increased risk of fatal crash involvement, with estimated odds ratios ranging from 1.83 for marijuana to 4.83 for depressants (Table 3). Polydrug use, defined as use of two or more non-alcohol drugs, was associated with a 3.4-fold increased risk of fatal crash involvement (Table 3).

Source: 
Guohua Li, Joanne E. Brady, and Qixuan Chen. Drug use and fatal motor vehicle crashes: A case-control study. Accident Analysis and Prevention 60 (2013) 205–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2013.09.001.
http://www.cuinjuryresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Li-et-al-AAP-...

(Prevalence Trends Of Substances Detected Among Drivers In Fatal Auto Accidents, 1999-2010) "When time trends of nonalcohol drugs were examined by drug class, the prevalence of narcotics tripled during the study period, increasing from 1.8% in 1999 (95% CI: 1.3, 2.6) to 5.4% (95% CI: 4.4, 6.8) in 2010 (Z = −7.07, P < 0.0001, Figure 2), and the increase occurred in both sexes (Table 1).

Source: 
Joanne E. Brady and Guohua Li. "Trends in Alcohol and Other Drugs Detected in Fatally Injured Drivers in the United States, 1999–2010." American Journal of Epidemiology. (2014) 179 (6): 692-699. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwt327.
http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/179/6/692

(Estimated Prevalence Of Substance Use Among Drivers In Fatal Auto Accidents) "Overall, 23,591 (90.9%) of the 25,951 drivers who died within 1 hour of a crash in these 6 states underwent toxicological testing. Drivers who were tested for drugs were similar in crash circumstances to those who were not tested, but they appeared to be slightly younger (mean age = 39.4 (standard deviation, 19.4) years vs. 43.4 (standard deviation, 27.7) years), more likely to be male (77.7% vs. 75.8%), more likely to be involved in nighttime crashes (51.4% vs.

Source: 
Joanne E. Brady and Guohua Li. "Trends in Alcohol and Other Drugs Detected in Fatally Injured Drivers in the United States, 1999–2010." American Journal of Epidemiology. (2014) 179 (6): 692-699. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwt327.
http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/179/6/692

(Odds Of Involvement In Fatal Auto Accidents Associated With Use Of Various Substances) "The prevalence of drugs detected in cases was higher than in controls across the drug categories (Table 3). Marijuana, narcotics, stimulants, and depressants were each associated with a significantly increased risk of fatal crash involvement, with estimated odds ratios ranging from 1.83 for marijuana to 4.83 for depressants (Table 3). Polydrug use, defined as use of two or more non-alcohol drugs, was associated with a 3.4-fold increased risk of fatal crash involvement (Table 3).

Source: 
Guohua Li, Joanne E. Brady, and Qixuan Chen. Drug use and fatal motor vehicle crashes: A case-control study. Accident Analysis and Prevention 60 (2013) 205–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2013.09.001.
http://www.cuinjuryresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Li-et-al-AAP-...

(Odds Ratio of Fatal Motor Vehicle Crash Associated With Various Substances) "The estimated odds ratios of fatal motor vehicle crashes associated with different drugs reported in this population-based case-control analysis are generally consistent with previous studies (Bedard et al., 2007; Brault et al., 2004; Laumon et al., 2005; Mathijssen and Houwing, 2005; Movig et al., 2004; Mura et al., 2003). For instance, in a case-control study conducted in the Netherlands, Movig et al.

Source: 
Guohua Li, Joanne E. Brady, and Qixuan Chen. Drug use and fatal motor vehicle crashes: A case-control study. Accident Analysis and Prevention 60 (2013) 205–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2013.09.001.
http://www.cuinjuryresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Li-et-al-AAP-...

(Prevalence of Use by Portuguese Youth Compared With Others in EU) "In ESPAD [European school survey project on alcohol and other drugs] 2011 once more cannabis was the drug that presented the higher lifetime prevalence of use (16%) a value closer to lifetime prevalence of any drug (19%). Between 2007 and 2001 increased the lifetime prevalence of use of any drug (from 14% to 19%), decreases were verified in the prevalence of use of all drugs with the exception of heroin.

Source: 
General-Directorate for Intervention on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies (SICAD), "2013 National Report (2012 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2013), p. 38.
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index228487EN.html
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_228494_EN_EMCDDA_NR%202...

(Ineffectiveness of Interdiction Efforts According to US Military Southern Command) "Last year, we had to cancel more than 200 very effective engagement activities in numerous multilateral exercises. Because of asset shortfalls, we’re unable to get after 74 percent of suspected maritime drug trafficking. I simply sit and watch it go by. And, because of service cuts, I don’t expect to get any immediate relief, in terms of assets to work with in this region of the world.

Source: 
Marine General John F. Kelly, Commander, US Southern Command, Testifying at a Hearing Before the US Senate Committee on Armed Services, Thursday, March 13, 2014, p. 6.
http://www.armed-services.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/14-21%20-%203-13-14.p...

(US Surgeon General's Determination of Effectiveness of Syringe Exchange Programs, 2011) "The Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, VADM Regina Benjamin, M.D., M.B.A., has determined that a demonstration needle exchange program (or more appropriately called syringe services program or SSP) would be effective in reducing drug abuse and the risk of infection with the etiologic agent for acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

Source: 
Sebelius, Kathleen, Secretary of Health and Human Services, "Determination That a Demonstration Needle Exchange Program Would be Effective in Reducing Drug Abuse and the Risk of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Infection Among Intravenous Drug Users," Federal Register, February 23, 2011, Vol. 76, No. 36, p. 10038.
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