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(Effect of Cannabis Use by Adolescents on Cognition and IQ and the Potential Influence of Tobacco) "Compared with those in our sample who had never tried cannabis, teenagers who had used cannabis at least 50 times were 17 times more likely (84% vs. 5%) to have smoked cigarettes more than 20 times in their lifetime. Accounting for group differences in cigarette smoking dramatically attenuated the associations between cannabis use and both IQ and educational performance.

Source: 
C Mokrysz, R Landy, SH Gage, MR Munafò, JP Roiser, and HV Curran, "Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study," Journal of Psychopharmacology, 0269881115622241, first published on January 6, 2016 doi:10.1177/0269881115622241
http://jop.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/06/0269881115622241.full.pd...
http://jop.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/06/0269881115622241.abstrac...

(Effect of Marijuana Use by Adolescents on Cognition and IQ) "In summary, the notion that cannabis use itself is causally related to lower IQ and poorer educational performance was not supported in this large teenage sample. However, this study indeed has limitations, in particular the young age of outcome assessment.

Source: 
C Mokrysz, R Landy, SH Gage, MR Munafò, JP Roiser, and HV Curran, "Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study," Journal of Psychopharmacology, 0269881115622241, first published on January 6, 2016 doi:10.1177/0269881115622241
http://jop.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/06/0269881115622241.full.pd...
http://jop.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/06/0269881115622241.abstrac...

Marijuana Use, Cognition and IQ

Source: 
C Mokrysz, R Landy, SH Gage, MR Munafò, JP Roiser, and HV Curran, "Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study," Journal of Psychopharmacology, 0269881115622241, first published on January 6, 2016 doi:10.1177/0269881115622241
http://jop.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/06/0269881115622241.full.pd...
http://jop.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/06/0269881115622241.abstrac...

(Services Offered by Syringe Services Programs / Syringe Exchange Programs) "Despite differences in program size, operating budgets, and staffing among SSPs [Syringe Services Programs] in rural, suburban, and urban locations, there were similarities in on-site services (Table 3). Most SSPs offered HIV counseling and testing (87% among rural SSPs, 71% among suburban SSPs, and 90% among urban SSPs) and HCV testing (67% among rural SSPs, 79% among suburban SSPs, and 78% among urban SSPs).

Source: 
Don C. Des Jarlais PhD, Ann Nugent, Alisa Solberg MPA, Jonathan Feelemyer MS, Jonathan Mermin MD, and Deborah Holtzman PhD. "Syringe Service Programs for Persons Who Inject Drugs in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas - United States, 2013," Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 2015;64:1337-1341.
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm6448.pdf
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6448a3.htm

(Centers for Disease Control on Syringe Exchange) "The basic service offered by SSPs [Syringe Services Programs] allows PWID [People Who Inject Drugs] to exchange used needles and syringes for new, sterile needles and syringes. Providing sterile needles and syringes and establishing appropriate disposal procedures substantially reduces the chances that PWID will share injection equipment and removes potentially HIV- and HCV-contaminated syringes from the community.

Source: 
Don C. Des Jarlais PhD, Ann Nugent, Alisa Solberg MPA, Jonathan Feelemyer MS, Jonathan Mermin MD, and Deborah Holtzman PhD. "Syringe Service Programs for Persons Who Inject Drugs in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas - United States, 2013," Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 2015;64:1337-1341.
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm6448.pdf
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6448a3.htm

(Funds Forfeited and Held by Government Agencies in the US in 2014) "Total financing sources realized by the Fund in FY 2014 were $3,777.3 million, an increase of $1,766.0 million compared to $2,011.3 million realized in FY 2013. This is the ninth year since inception of the Fund that it has exceeded $1 billion in deposits. In FY 2014 there were eight large fraud cases which yielded $3,502.9 million in forfeitures. Specifically, the Toyota and Bernard Madoff cases resulted in $2,900 million.

Source: 
"Audit of the Assets Forfeiture Fund and Seized Asset Deposit Fund Annual Financial Statements: Fiscal Year 2014, US Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General, Audit Report 15-08, January 2015, p. 7.
https://oig.justice.gov/reports/2015/a1508.pdf

(Use Of Any Illegal Drug and Illegal Drugs Other Than Marijuana Among 8th, 10th, and 12th Graders in the US)

Source: 
Miech, R. A., Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2015). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2014: Volume I, Secondary school students. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan, Table 2-1, p. 45.
http://monitoringthefuture.org//pubs/monographs/mtf-vol1_2014.pdf
http://monitoringthefuture.org/pubs.html

(State and Federal Prison Populations by Race, Gender, and Latino/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2014) "An estimated 516,900 black males were in state or federal prison at yearend 2014, accounting for 37% of the male prison population (table 10, appendix table 3). White males made up 32% of the male prison population (453,500 prison inmates), followed by Hispanics (308,700 inmates or 22%). White females (53,100 prisoners) in state or federal prison at yearend 2014 outnumbered both black (22,600) and Hispanic (17,800) females.

Source: 
Carson, E. Ann. Prisoners In 2014. Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sept. 2015, NCJ248955, p. 15.
http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5387 http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p14.pdf

(State Spending on Corrections in the US, 2014) "In fiscal 2013, corrections spending represented 3.2 percent of total state spending and 6.9 percent of general fund spending. General fund dollars are the primary source for state corrections and account for $47.4 billion, or 88.9 percent, of all fiscal 2013 state corrections spending. State funds (general funds and other state funds combined, but excluding bonds) accounted for 97.7 percent of total state corrections spending in fiscal 2013. Federal funds accounted for 1.4 percent and bonds accounted for 1.0 percent.

Source: 
National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), "State Expenditure Report: Examining Fiscal 2012-2014 State Spending," (Washington, DC: NASBO, 2014), p. 54.
http://www.nasbo.org/publications-data/state-expenditure-report/state-ex...
http://www.nasbo.org/sites/default/files/State%20Expenditure%20Report%20...

(Cannabis and Mortality) "In summary, this study showed little, if any, effect of marijuana use on non-AIDS mortality in men and on total mortality in women. The increased risk of AIDS mortality in male marijuana users probably did not reflect a causal relationship, but most likely represented uncontrolled confounding by male homosexual behavior. The risk of mortality associated with marijuana use was lower than that associated with tobacco cigarette smoking."

Source: 
Stephen Sidney, MD, Jerome E. Beck, DrPH, Irene S. Tekawa, MA, Charles P Quesenberry, Jr, PhD, and Gary D. Friedman, MD, “Marijuana Use and Mortality.” American Journal of Public Health 87.4 (1997) pp. 589–590.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1380837/
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Trends in Lifetime Prevalence of Use of Various Drugs
for 8th, 10th, and 12th Graders in the US
(Entries are in Percentages)
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014