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(Restrictions Against Federal Interference With State-Authorized Hemp Production Pilot Programs) The federal budget bill for FY2015 contains this provision:
"SEC. 539. None of the funds made available by this Act may be used in contravention of section 7606 ('Legitimacy of Industrial Hemp Research') of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (Public Law 113–79) by the Department of Justice or the Drug Enforcement Administration."

Source: 
"Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015," US Congress, Enrolled Bill Published December 17, 2014, p. 88.
https://www.congress.gov/113/bills/hr83/BILLS-113hr83enr.pdf

(Limitation on Federal Interference With Implementation of State Medical Marijuana Laws) In December 2014, the federal budget for FY2015 was enacted, containing this provision:

Source: 
"Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015," US Congress, Enrolled Bill Published December 17, 2014, p. 88.
https://www.congress.gov/113/bills/hr83/BILLS-113hr83enr.pdf

(Opioids Do Not Have Potential To Cause Malformations To An Embryo Or Fetus) "It is important to note that, contrary to alcohol, benzodiazepines and nicotine, opioids do not have teratogenic potential (3). Thus, special attention needs to be paid to dependence and abuse of legal substances and prescription drugs that can have severe consequences for the foetus and newborn, such as foetal developmental disorders or sudden infant death syndrome (Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Center for Excellence, 2013; McDonnell-Naughton et al., 2012)."

Source: 
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, "Pregnancy and opioid use: strategies for treatment," EMCDDA Papers (Publications Office of the European Union: Luxembourg, 2014), p. 3.
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/emcdda-papers/pregnacy-opioid-u...
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_232995_EN_TDAU14006ENN....

(Risk and Treatability of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome) "Untreated opiate dependence in pregnant women is associated with many environmental and medical factors that contribute to poor maternal and child outcomes. Illicit opioid consumption is associated with a sixfold increase in obstetric complications such as low birth weight, toxaemia, third trimester bleeding, malpresentation, puerperal morbidity (2), foetal distress and meconium aspiration.

Source: 
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, "Pregnancy and opioid use: strategies for treatment," EMCDDA Papers (Publications Office of the European Union: Luxembourg, 2014), p. 3.
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/emcdda-papers/pregnacy-opioid-u...
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_232995_EN_TDAU14006ENN....

(Prevalence Of Persistent Pain Among Adults In The US) "Approximately 19.0% of adults in the United States reported persistent pain in 2010, but prevalence rates vary significantly by subgroup (Table 1). Older adults are much more likely to report persistent pain than younger adults, with adults aged 60 to 69 at highest risk (AOR = 4.0, 95% CI = 2.7–5.8). Women are at slightly higher risk than men (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2–1.7), as are adults who did not graduate from high school (AOR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1–1.7).

Source: 
Jae Kennedy, John M. Roll, Taylor Schraudner, Sean Murphy, and Sterling McPherson, "Prevalence of Persistent Pain in the U.S. Adult Population: New Data From the 2010 National Health Interview Survey," The Journal of Pain, Vol. 15, No. 10 (October), 2014, pp. 979-984. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2014.05.009
http://www.jpain.org/article/S1526-5900%2814%2900774-3/abstract

(Extent Of Use And Types Of Pain Conditions For Which Complementary And Alternative Medicine (CAM) Are Used In The US) "For which pain conditions are CAM treatments most often used?

Source: 
Institute of Medicine, "Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research" (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2011), p. 135.
http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13172

(Reasons People Use Complementary And Alternative Medicines (CAM) For Pain Management) "CAM holds special appeal for many people with pain for several reasons:
"• deficits in the way that many physicians treat pain, using only single modalities without attempting to track their effectiveness for a particular person over time or to coordinate diverse approaches;
"• the higher preponderance of pain in women (see Chapter 2), given that 'women are more likely than men to seek CAM treatments; (IOM, 2005, p. 10); and

Source: 
Institute of Medicine, "Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research" (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2011), pp. 134-135.
http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13172


Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Approaches to Pain Management

Source: 
Institute of Medicine, "Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research" (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2011), p. 134.
http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13172

(Increasing Involvement Of Benzodiazepines In Opioid Overdose Mortality In The US, 2011) "In 2011, 5,188 opioid-analgesic poisoning deaths also involved benzodiazepines (sedatives used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and seizures), up from 527 such deaths in 1999 (Figure 3). From 2006 through 2011, the number of opioid-analgesic poisoning deaths involving benzodiazepines increased 14% on average each year, while the number of opioid-analgesic poisoning deaths not involving benzodiazepines did not change significantly."

Source: 
Chen, LH, Hedegaard, H, and Warner, M. Drug-poisoning deaths involving opioid analgesics: United States, 1999–2011. NCHS data brief, No. 166. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2014, p. 3.
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db166.htm
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db166.pdf

(Opioid-Related Deaths In The US 2012, and Trends 1999-2012) "In 2012, there were 41,502 deaths due to drug poisoning (often referred to as drug-overdose deaths) in the United States (Table), of which 16,007 involved opioid analgesics and 5,925 involved heroin.

Source: 
Margaret Warner, PhD, Holly Hedegaard, MD, MSPH, and Li-Hui Chen, MS, PhD, Trends in Drug-poisoning Deaths Involving Opioid Analgesics and Heroin: United States, 1999–2012. NCHS Health E-Stat. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, December 2014, p. 1.
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/drug_poisoning/drug_poisoning.htm
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/drug_poisoning/drug_poisoning_deaths...
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