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(Prevalence of Tobacco Use in the US, 2013, According to NSDUH)
"• In 2013, an estimated 66.9 million Americans aged 12 or older were current (past month) users of a tobacco product. This represents 25.5 percent of the population in that age range (Figure 4.1). Also, 55.8 million persons (21.3 percent of the population) were current cigarette smokers; 12.4 million (4.7 percent) smoked cigars; 8.8 million (3.4 percent) used smokeless tobacco; and 2.3 million (0.9 percent) smoked tobacco in pipes.

Source: 
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014, pp. 47-48.
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2013SummNatFindDetTables/Index.aspx
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2013SummNatFindDetTables/NationalFindin...

(Possible Masking Agent: Zinc Found to Produce False Negatives in ELISA [Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay] Tests) "We conclude that zinc ion (Zn2+) is a potential adulterant in urine samples tested for drugs in routine workplace drug screening under the NIDA-5 panel using ELISA. Its effect in causing potential false-negative results in drug testing is robust and reproducible. This effect appears independent of the mode by which zinc is made available in urine.

Source: 
Abhishek Venkatratnam and Nathan H. Lents. Zinc Reduces the Detection of Cocaine, Methamphetamine, and THC by ELISA Urine Testing. Journal of Analytical Toxicology (July/August 2011) 35(6):333-340 doi:10.1093/anatox/35.6.333.
http://jat.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/6/333.long
http://jat.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/6/333.abstract

(Using Opioids for Treatment of Acute Pain) "Mild to moderate acute pain is often relieved by physical interventions—such as the application of ice, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), massage or stretching, and/or bracing—along with a mild analgesic such as an NSAID or acetaminophen. More severe pain often requires opioid therapy, which will be discussed in depth below.

Source: 
Savage, Seddon R., Kenneth L. Kirsh, and Steven D. Passik. "Challenges in Using Opioids to Treat Pain in Persons With Substance Use Disorders." Addiction Science & Clinical Practice 4.2 (2008): 4–25.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2797112/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2797112/pdf/ascp-04-2-4.pdf

(Substance Use Disorders and Effective Pain Treatment "Persons with substance use disorders are less likely than others to receive effective pain treatment (Rupp and Delaney, 2004). The primary reason is clinicians' concern that they may misuse opioids.

Source: 
Savage, Seddon R., Kenneth L. Kirsh, and Steven D. Passik. "Challenges in Using Opioids to Treat Pain in Persons With Substance Use Disorders." Addiction Science & Clinical Practice 4.2 (2008): 4–25.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2797112/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2797112/pdf/ascp-04-2-4.pdf

(Efficacy of E-Cigarettes in Tobacco Cessation and Dual Use of ENDS and Cigarettes) "Among adults, reductions in cigarettes per day were observed in several of the clinical studies83,84,86 and in 1 population-based study4 among those who did not quit. Reduction in cigarettes smoked per day could have benefit if it promotes subsequent cessation, as has been found with NRT,90 but this pattern has not yet been seen with e-cigarettes.

Source: 
Rachel Grana, Neal Benowitz and Stanton A. Glantz, "Contemporary Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine: E-Cigarettes: A Scientific Review," Circulation (Dallas, TX: American Heart Association, May 13, 2014). 2014;129:1972-1986. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.007667, p. 1981.
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/129/19/1972.full
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/129/19/1972.full.pdf+html

(Efficacy of E-Cigarettes in Tobacco Cessation) "In contrast to the assumption that e-cigarettes would function as a better form of NRT [Nicotine Replacement Therapy], population-based studies that reflect real-world e-cigarette use found that e-cigarette use is not associated with successful quitting; all4,79,80,82 had point estimates of the odds of quitting of <1.0.

Source: 
Rachel Grana, Neal Benowitz and Stanton A. Glantz, "Contemporary Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine: E-Cigarettes: A Scientific Review," Circulation (Dallas, TX: American Heart Association, May 13, 2014). 2014;129:1972-1986. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.007667, pp. 1980-1981.
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/129/19/1972.full
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/129/19/1972.full.pdf+html

(Health Effects of E-Cigarette Use) "In summary, only a few studies have directly investigated the health effects of exposure to e-cigarette aerosol, but some demonstrate the ability of e-cigarette aerosol exposure to result in biological effects. Long-term biological effects are unknown at this time because e-cigarettes have not been in widespread use long enough for assessment."

Source: 
Rachel Grana, Neal Benowitz and Stanton A. Glantz, "Contemporary Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine: E-Cigarettes: A Scientific Review," Circulation (Dallas, TX: American Heart Association, May 13, 2014). 2014;129:1972-1986. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.007667, p. 1978.
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/129/19/1972.full
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/129/19/1972.full.pdf+html

(Limitations of Some Research on Health Effects of E-Cigarettes) "National Vaper’s Club, a pro–e cigarette advocacy group, published a 'risk assessment' of e-cigarette and cigarette use that concluded that 'neither vapor from e-liquids or cigarette smoke analytes posed a condition of 'significant risk' of harm to human health via the inhalation route of exposure.'77 The authors failed to detect benzo(a)pyrene in conventional cigarette smoke despite the fact that it is an established carcinogen in cigarette smoke, and their assessment of conventional cig

Source: 
Rachel Grana, Neal Benowitz and Stanton A. Glantz, "Contemporary Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine: E-Cigarettes: A Scientific Review," Circulation (Dallas, TX: American Heart Association, May 13, 2014). 2014;129:1972-1986. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.007667, p. 1978.
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/129/19/1972.full
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/129/19/1972.full.pdf+html

(Health Effects of E-Cigarette Use (Electronic Nicotine Delivery System) Use) "Propylene glycol and glycerin are the main base ingredients of the e-liquid.

Source: 
Rachel Grana, Neal Benowitz and Stanton A. Glantz, "Contemporary Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine: E-Cigarettes: A Scientific Review," Circulation (Dallas, TX: American Heart Association, May 13, 2014). 2014;129:1972-1986. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.007667, p. 1978.
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/129/19/1972.full
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/129/19/1972.full.pdf+html

(Calls to US Poison Centers About Human Exposures to E-Cigarettes, 2010-2014) "During the study period, PCs reported 2,405 e-cigarette and 16,248 cigarette exposure calls from across the United States, the District of Columbia, and U.S. territories. E-cigarette exposure calls per month increased from one in September 2010 to 215 in February 2014 (Figure). Cigarette exposure calls ranged from 301 to 512 calls per month and were more frequent in summer months, a pattern also observed with total call volume to PCs involving all exposures (5).

Source: 
Kevin Chatham-Stephens, MD, Royal Law, MPH, Ethel Taylor, DVM, Paul Melstrom, PhD, Rebecca Bunnell, ScD, Baoguang Wang, MD, Benjamin Apelberg, PhD, Joshua G. Schier, MD, "Calls to Poison Centers for Exposures to Electronic Cigarettes - United States, September 2010-February 2014, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control, April 4, 2014, Vol. 63, No. 13, p. 292.
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm6313.pdf
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6313a4.htm
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