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(Medical Marijuana Laws Associated With Reduction in Traffic Fatalities) "Using population-based data from 1985 to 2014, we found that, first, states that enacted MMLs during the study period had lower fatality rates compared with states without MMLs. Second, on average, traffic fatalities further decreased in states post-MML, with both immediate (sudden change in fatality rate after MML enactment) and gradual (change in rate trend after MML enactment) declines over time in those aged 25 to 44 years.

Source: 
Julian Santaella-Tenorio, Christine M. Mauro, Melanie M. Wall, June H. Kim, Magdalena Cerdá, Katherine M. Keyes, Deborah S. Hasin, Sandro Galea, and Silvia S. Martins. US Traffic Fatalities, 1985–2014, and Their Relationship to Medical Marijuana Laws. American Journal of Public Health: February 2017, Vol. 107, No. 2, pp. 336-342.
doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303577
http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2016.303577

(Relationship Between Medical Marijuana Laws (MMLs) and Traffic Fatalities in the US) "Our study suggests that, on average, MMLs are associated with reductions in traffic fatalities, particularly pronounced among those aged 25 to 44 years, a group representing a great percentage of all registered patients for medical marijuana use,29 and with increased prevalence of marijuana use after the enactment of MMLs.30 Although increases in marijuana use following the establishment of marijuana dispensaries could reduce the occurrence of alcohol-related m

Source: 
Julian Santaella-Tenorio, Christine M. Mauro, Melanie M. Wall, June H. Kim, Magdalena Cerdá, Katherine M. Keyes, Deborah S. Hasin, Sandro Galea, and Silvia S. Martins. US Traffic Fatalities, 1985–2014, and Their Relationship to Medical Marijuana Laws. American Journal of Public Health: February 2017, Vol. 107, No. 2, pp. 336-342.
doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303577
http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2016.303577

(DEA Versus States Regarding Hemp Production) "Federal law prohibits cultivation without a permit, DEA determines whether any industrial hemp production authorized under a state statute is permitted, and it enforces standards governing the security conditions under which the crop must be grown. In other words, a grower needs to get permission from the DEA to grow hemp or faces the possibility of federal charges or property confiscation, regardless of whether the grower has a state-issued permit.46

Source: 
Johnson, Renée, "Hemp As An Agricultural Commodity," Congressional Research Service (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Jan. 26, 2016), pp. 13-14.
http://nationalaglawcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/assets/crs/RL32725.pdf

(Alcohol as a Factor in Overdose Deaths Attributed to Other Drugs, US, 2014) "In 2014, alcohols, including ethanol and isopropyl alcohol, were involved in 15% of all drug overdose deaths and 17% of the drug overdose deaths that mentioned involvement of at least one specific drug. Table E shows the frequency of alcohol involvement among drug overdose deaths involving specific drugs.
"• Alcohol involvement was mentioned in 12%–22% of the drug overdose deaths involving fentanyl, heroin, hydrocodone, morphine, oxycodone, alprazolam, diazepam, or cocaine.

Source: 
Warner M, Trinidad JP, Bastian BA, et al. Drugs most frequently involved in drug overdose deaths: United States, 2010–2014. National vital statistics reports; vol 65 no 10. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2016, pp. 5-6.
https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/nvsr.htm
https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr65/nvsr65_10.pdf

(296 People Serving Time in Federal Prisons in the US Whose Most Serious Offense was Possession of a Drug) The US Dept. of Justice's Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that on Sept. 30, 2012, there were a total of 187,773 people sentenced and serving time in US federal prison for any offense. Of those, 97,214 people (51.8% of the total) had as their most serious charge a drug offense: 96,907 of them for drug trafficking or manufacture (51.6% of the total), 296 for drug possession (0.16% of the total), and 11 for "other"* drug offenses.

Source: 
Sam Taxy, Julie Samuels, and William Adams, Urban Institute. “Drug Offenders in Federal Prison: Estimates of Characteristics Based on Linked Data.” NCJ248648. US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics: Washington, DC, Oct. 2015, p. 8, Table 8.
https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/dofp12.pdf
https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5436

(46,000 People in State Prisons in the US Whose Most Serious Offense was Possession of a Drug) The US Dept. of Justice's Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that at yearend 2014, 1,316,409 people were serving sentences in state prisons in the US, of whom 206,300 (15.7%) had as their most serious offence a drug charge: 46,000 for drug possession (3.5% of all state prison inmates), and 160,300 for "other" drug offences, including manufacturing and sale (12.2% of all state prison inmates).

Source: 
E. Ann Carson, PhD, and Elizabeth Anderson. Prisoners In 2015. Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2016, NCJ250229, p. 14, Table 9, and p. 30, Appendix Table 5.
https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5869
https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p15.pdf

(Total Number of Adults Incarcerated in US Prisons and Jails, 2015) "At yearend 2015, an estimated 2,173,800 persons were either under the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons or in the custody of local jails in the United States, down about 51,300 persons compared to yearend 2014. This was the largest decline in the incarcerated population since it first decreased in 2009. By yearend 2015, the number of persons incarcerated in state or federal prisons or local jails fell to the lowest level observed since 2004 (2,136,600) (not shown).

Source: 
Danielle Kaeble and Lauren Glaze, "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2015," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2016), NCJ250374, p. 2.
https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5870
https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus15.pdf

(US States Which Have Legalized Marijuana) Eight states have legalized adult (aged 21 and older) personal use of marijuana and legally regulate the production, distribution, and sale of marijuana: Alaska, California, Colorado, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington state. The District of Columbia legalized personal possession and cultivation of marijuana by adults aged 21 and older.

(Toxic Effects of Kratom) "During the past 3 years, there have been an increasing number of case reports15,17,29 describing unusual adverse reactions in patients who had been using kratom or kratom-based products. The acute adverse effects of kratom experienced by many users appear to be a direct result of kratom's stimulant and opioid activities.6,9,11,30,31 Stimulant effects may manifest themselves in some individuals as anxiety, irritability, and increased aggression. Opioid-like effects include sedation, nausea, constipation, and itching.

Source: 
Prozialeck, WC, Jivan, JK, and Andurkar, SV. Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. December 2012;112(12):792-9.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23212430
http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2094342

(Analgesic and opioid-like effects of Kratom) "In Southeast Asia, kratom has long been used for the management of pain and opium withdrawal.6,9-11,14 In the West, kratom is increasingly being used by individuals for the self-management of pain or withdrawal from opioid drugs such as heroin and prescription pain relievers.20,27 It is these aspects of kratom pharmacology that have received the most scientific attention.

Source: 
Prozialeck, WC, Jivan, JK, and Andurkar, SV. Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. December 2012;112(12):792-9.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23212430
http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2094342
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