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(Cannabis and Mortality) "In summary, this study showed little, if any, effect of marijuana use on non-AIDS mortality in men and on total mortality in women. The increased risk of AIDS mortality in male marijuana users probably did not reflect a causal relationship, but most likely represented uncontrolled confounding by male homosexual behavior. The risk of mortality associated with marijuana use was lower than that associated with tobacco cigarette smoking."

Source: 
Stephen Sidney, MD, Jerome E. Beck, DrPH, Irene S. Tekawa, MA, Charles P Quesenberry, Jr, PhD, and Gary D. Friedman, MD, “Marijuana Use and Mortality.” American Journal of Public Health 87.4 (1997) pp. 589–590.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1380837/

(Number of People in Jails in the US, by Gender) "Males have made up at least 85% of the jail population since 2000. The female inmate population increased 18.1% (up 16,700 inmates) between midyear 2010 and 2014, while the male population declined 3.2% (down 20,900 inmates) (table 2, table 3). The female jail population grew by an average of about 1.6% every year between 2005 and 2014. In comparison, the male jail population declined by 0.3% every year since 2005 (not shown)."

Source: 
Todd D. Minton and Zhen Zeng, PhD, "Jail Inmates at Midyear 2014," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, June 2015), NCJ248629, p. 3.
http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5299
http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/jim14.pdf

(Jail Incarceration Rate in the US) "The jail incarceration rate—the confined jail population per 100,000 U.S. residents—decreased steadily from a peak of 259 inmates per 100,000 at
midyear 2007 to 234 per 100,000 at midyear 2014. The adult only jail incarceration rate has also declined from a high of 340 inmates per 100,000 at midyear 2007 to 302 per 100,000 at midyear 2014."

Source: 
Todd D. Minton and Zhen Zeng, PhD, "Jail Inmates at Midyear 2014," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, June 2015), NCJ248629, p. 1.
http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5299
http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/jim14.pdf

(Number of Juveniles Held in Adult Jails in the US) "About 4,200 juveniles age 17 or younger were held in local jails at midyear 2014. They accounted for 0.6% of the confined population, down from 1.2% at midyear 2000. Nearly 90% or 3,700 juvenile inmates were tried or awaiting trial in adult court. The number of juveniles not charged as an adult declined by 74% between midyear 2010 and 2014 (from 1,900 to 500 inmates)."

Source: 
Todd D. Minton and Zhen Zeng, PhD, "Jail Inmates at Midyear 2014," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, June 2015), NCJ248629, p. 4.
http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5299
http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/jim14.pdf

(People Held in US Jails at Midyear 2014 by Conviction Status) "At midyear 2014, about 6 in 10 inmates were not convicted, but were in jail awaiting court action on a current charge — a rate unchanged since 2005. About 4 in 10 inmates were sentenced offenders or convicted offenders awaiting sentencing. From midyear 2013 to 2014, the number of unconvicted inmates and the number of convicted inmates remained statistically the same.

Source: 
Todd D. Minton and Zhen Zeng, PhD, "Jail Inmates at Midyear 2014," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, June 2015), NCJ248629, p. 4.
http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5299
http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/jim14.pdf

(Decriminalization of Drugs in Portugal) "The decriminalisation of possession and use of drugs, Law 30/2000 of 29 of November, is an operational instrument to dissuade the use and abuse of drugs and to promote public health, complementary to the strategies of other areas of intervention in the field of demand reduction, representing as well a measure against social exclusion.

Source: 
General-Directorate for Intervention on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies (SICAD), "2014 National Report (2013 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2014), p. 121.
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/national-reports/portugal-2014
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_239675_EN_2014_NATIONAL...

(Growth in Incidence of Hepatitis C Diagnoses in the US and Description of Groups at Risk) "After receiving reports of approximately 800-1,000 cases of acute hepatitis C each year from 2006-2010, there was a significant increase of 151.5% in reported cases of acute HCV infection from 2010 to 2013. Cases of acute HCV infection rose from 850 in 2010 to 1,229 in 2011 to 1,778 in 2012 and then to 2,138 in 2013. The increase from 2010-2013 is thought to reflect both true increases in incidence and improved case ascertainment.

Source: 
"Viral Hepatitis Surveillance - United States, 2013" (Atlanta, GA: US Centers for Disease Control Division of Viral Hepatitis), April 24, 2015, p. 4.
http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/Statistics/2013Surveillance/index.htm
http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/Statistics/2013Surveillance/PDFs/2013HepSur...

(Estimated Global Prevalence of Cocaine Use) "Cocaine use remained stable over 2012, with 14 million-21 million estimated past-year users globally (0.4 per cent annual prevalence). Cocaine use remained high in North and South America (1.8 per cent and 1.2 per cent annual prevalence rates, respectively), Oceania (1.5 per cent) and Western and Central Europe (1 per cent).

Source: 
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, World Drug Report 2014 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.14.XI.7), p. 35.
http://www.unodc.org/wdr2014/
http://www.unodc.org/documents/wdr2014/World_Drug_Report_2014_web.pdf

(Prevalence of Tobacco Use in the US, 2013, According to NSDUH)
"• In 2013, an estimated 66.9 million Americans aged 12 or older were current (past month) users of a tobacco product. This represents 25.5 percent of the population in that age range (Figure 4.1). Also, 55.8 million persons (21.3 percent of the population) were current cigarette smokers; 12.4 million (4.7 percent) smoked cigars; 8.8 million (3.4 percent) used smokeless tobacco; and 2.3 million (0.9 percent) smoked tobacco in pipes.

Source: 
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014, pp. 47-48.
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2013SummNatFindDetTables/Index.aspx
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2013SummNatFindDetTables/NationalFindin...

(Possible Masking Agent: Zinc Found to Produce False Negatives in ELISA [Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay] Tests) "We conclude that zinc ion (Zn2+) is a potential adulterant in urine samples tested for drugs in routine workplace drug screening under the NIDA-5 panel using ELISA. Its effect in causing potential false-negative results in drug testing is robust and reproducible. This effect appears independent of the mode by which zinc is made available in urine.

Source: 
Abhishek Venkatratnam and Nathan H. Lents. Zinc Reduces the Detection of Cocaine, Methamphetamine, and THC by ELISA Urine Testing. Journal of Analytical Toxicology (July/August 2011) 35(6):333-340 doi:10.1093/anatox/35.6.333.
http://jat.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/6/333.long
http://jat.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/6/333.abstract
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