Drug Use Prevalence

31. Global Prevalence of Cocaine Use

"Despite these regional fluctuations, the annual prevalence of cocaine use remained largely stable at the global level over the period 1998-2014, fluctuating at between 0.3 and 0.4 per cent of the population aged 15-64. However, as the population has grown, the number of cocaine users has increased, from some 14 million in 1998 to 18.8 million in 2014. Meanwhile, it is likely that there has been a decline in per capita consumption of cocaine, prompted by a decline in the amount of cocaine available for consumption over the period 2007-2014, mainly linked to a drop in cocaine production in the Andean region. In parallel, the number of heavy cocaine users in North America has declined. This points to an overall shrinking of the cocaine market, although the number of (recreational rather than regular) cocaine users in several emerging markets continues to rise."

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, World Drug Report 2016 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.16.XI.7), pp. 13-14.
http://www.unodc.org/wdr2016/
http://www.unodc.org/doc/wdr20...

32. Global Opioid Use Rates, 2011

"The use of opioids (heroin, opium and prescription opioids) has increased in Asia since 2009, particularly in East, South-East, Central and South-West Asia. While reliable data do not exist for most parts of Africa, experts report an increase in the use of opioids there. North America 3.9 per cent), Oceania (3.0 per cent), the Near and Middle
East/South-West Asia (1.9 per cent) and East and South-Eastern Europe (1.2 per cent) show a prevalence of opioid use that is higher than the global average. The use of opiates (heroin and opium) has remained stable in some regions, nevertheless, a high prevalence is reported in the Near and Middle East/South-West Asia (1.2 per cent), primarily in Afghanistan, Iran (Islamic Republic of ) and Pakistan, as well as Central Asia (0.8 per cent), Eastern and South-Eastern Europe (0.8 per cent), North America (0.5 per cent) and West and Central Africa (0.4 per cent)."

UNODC, World Drug Report 2013 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.13.XI.6), p. 2.
https://www.unodc.org/unodc/se...

33. Global Estimated Prevalence of IDU-Related HIV, 2011

"Of the estimated 14.0 million (range: 11.2 million to 22.0 million) people who inject drugs worldwide, UNODC estimates that 1.6 million (range: 1.2 million to 3.9 million) are living with HIV. That represents a global prevalence of HIV of 11.5 per cent among people who inject drugs.15
"Along with the estimates of the total number of people who inject drugs, the global total and prevalence rates of people who inject drugs living with HIV for 2011 is also lower than the estimated 3 million (18.9 per cent prevalence among people who inject drugs) previously presented by the Reference Group to the United Nations on HIV and Injecting Drug Use for 2008. These reduced estimates are in large part a result of the availability of more reliable information on HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs."

UNODC, World Drug Report 2013 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.13.XI.6), p. 5.
https://www.unodc.org/unodc/se...

34. Global Estimate of Prevalence of Injection Drug Use

"Updating the previous global estimates, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) estimates that in 2011 a total of 14.0 million (range: 11.2 million to 22.0 million) people injected drugs worldwide, which corresponds to 0.31 per cent (range: 0.24-0.48 per cent) of the population aged 15-64.14 The current global estimates are lower than the previous ones of 15.9 million people, and primarily reflect the fact that many countries have revised their earlier estimates downward, based on behavioural surveillance data. However, many countries have also reported an increase in the prevalence of injecting drug use and in the number of people who inject drugs.
"Changes over time in national, regional and global estimates of injecting drug use may result from a number of factors, such as improvements in the methodology or coverage of behavioural surveillance (e.g., Georgia, Italy and South Africa), additional countries undertaking behavioural surveillance for the first time (Kenya and Seychelles) or changes in patterns of drug use, including injecting drug use (Australia and Brazil). Such factors have contributed to the overall reduced global estimates of people who inject drugs. Notable increases in the estimated number of people who inject drugs have been reported from Pakistan, the Russian Federation and Viet Nam, while countries reporting a considerable reduction include Brazil, Indonesia, South Africa, Thailand and the United States."

UNODC, World Drug Report 2013 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.13.XI.6), p. 3.
https://www.unodc.org/unodc/se...

35. Estimated Prevalence of Current Methamphetamine Use in the US, 2014

Amphetamine-Type Stimulants

"In 2014, the estimated 1.6 million people aged 12 or older who were current nonmedical users of stimulants included 569,000 people who were current methamphetamine users (Figure 8). Thus, almost two thirds of current nonmedical users of stimulants in 2014 who were aged 12 or older reported current nonmedical use of prescription stimulants but not methamphetamine.
"These numbers of nonmedical users of stimulants and methamphetamine users represent 0.6 percent of the population aged 12 or older who were current nonmedical users of stimulants (Figure 9) and 0.2 percent who were current users of methamphetamine in 2014 (Figure 10). The percentage of the population aged 12 or older in 2014 who were current nonmedical users of stimulants was higher than the percentages for most years between 2005 and 2012. Meanwhile, the percentage of the population aged 12 or older in 2014 who were current users of methamphetamine was similar to the percentages for most years between 2002 and 2013."

Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2015). Behavioral health trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 15-4927, NSDUH Series H-50), pp. 8-9.
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sit...
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sit...

36. Global Amphetamine-Type Stimulant Use, 2011

"Use of ATS, excluding 'ecstasy', remains widespread globally, and appears to be increasing. Although prevalence estimates are not available from Asia and Africa, experts from these regions continue to report a perceived increase in the use of ATS. While the use of ATS was already a problem in East and South-East Asia, there are reports of increasing diversion of precursor chemicals, as well as increased seizures and manufacture of methamphetamine, combined with an increase in its use. Current data from the drug use survey in Pakistan, for instance supports this assessment. Use of ATS is emerging in Pakistan, with a reported annual prevalence of 0.1 per cent among the general population.3 High levels of ATS use are reported in Oceania (2.1 per cent in Australia and New Zealand), Central and North America (1.3 per cent each) and Africa (0.9 per cent), while the estimated annual prevalence of ATS use in Asia (0.7 per cent) is comparable with the global average."

UNODC, World Drug Report 2013 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.13.XI.6), p. 2.
https://www.unodc.org/unodc/se...

37. Prevalence of Illicit Drug Use Among Full-Time Employees in the US,

"• The prevalence of past month illicit drug use among adult full-time workers was 8.2 percent (Figure 2.3 and Tables 2.2 and 2.3).
"• Nearly one out of five (19.0 percent) workers aged 18 to 25 used illicit drugs during the past month. This was a higher percentage than among the 26-to-34 (10.3 percent), 35-to-49 (7.0 percent), and 50-to-64 (2.6 percent) age groups (Figure 2.3 and Table 2.2).
"• Males were more likely than females to report past month illicit drug use (9.7 vs. 6.2 percent). Males accounted for about two thirds (6.4 million) of the workers who reported past month illicit drug use (Figure 2.4 and Table 2.2).
"• The prevalence of past month illicit drug use for white adults was 8.8 percent, higher than the prevalence for Asian (2.2 percent) or Hispanic (6.7 percent) adults, and lower than that reported for adults who reported two or more races (13.5 percent). The prevalence of past month illicit drug use by Asians was lower than that reported by all other racial/ethnic groups reported here (Figure 2.5 and Table 2.2)."

Larson, S. L., Eyerman, J., Foster, M. S., & Gfroerer, J. C. (2007). Worker Substance Use and Workplace Policies and Programs (DHHS Publication No. SMA 07-4273, Analytic Series A-29). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, p. 12.
http://adaiclearinghouse.org/d...

38. Global Estimated Prevalence of Injection Drug Use, by Region

"At a regional level, a high prevalence of injecting drug use is found in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe (1.3 per cent of the population aged 15-64), where the percentage of people who inject drugs is four times greater than the global average and which alone accounts for 21 per cent of the total number of people who inject drugs globally.
"A high prevalence rate for injecting drug use is also noted in Central Asia (1.3 per cent), which has a rate of more than four times the global average. Injecting drug use also remains a serious public health concern in a number of countries in East and South-East Asia, with the region accounting for 27 per cent of the global total. South Asia has the lowest level of injecting drug use (0.03 per cent, mostly as a result of the low prevalence rate reported in India), considerably lower than that of any other region.
"Countries and areas with the highest rates of injecting drug use – more than 3.5 times the global average — are Azerbaijan (5.2 per cent), Seychelles (2.3 per cent), the Russian Federation (2.3 per cent), Estonia (1.5 per cent), Georgia (1.3 per cent), Canada (1.3 per cent), the Republic of Moldova (1.2 per cent), Puerto Rico (1.15 per cent), Latvia (1.15 per cent) and Belarus (1.11 per cent). China, the Russian Federation and the United States are the countries with the largest numbers of people who inject drugs. Combined, they account for an estimated 46 per cent, or nearly one in two, people who inject drugs globally."

UNODC, World Drug Report 2013 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.13.XI.6), pp. 3-5.
https://www.unodc.org/unodc/se...

39. Estimated Misuse of Prescription Drugs and Pain Relievers in the US

"About 1.0 percent of people aged 12 or older (2.7 million) had a prescription drug use disorder in the past year, including 2.0 million people with a pain reliever use disorder, 688,000 with a tranquilizer use disorder, 426,000 with a stimulant use disorder, and 154,000 with a sedative use disorder. In 2015, as part of their most recent substance use treatment, 822,000 people received treatment for the misuse of pain relievers, 293,000 people received treatment for tranquilizer misuse, 139,000 received treatment for stimulant misuse, and 116,000 received treatment for sedative misuse.
"Among people aged 12 or older who misused prescription pain relievers in the past year, the most commonly reported reason for their last misuse was to relieve physical pain (62.6 percent). Among past year misusers of tranquilizers, the most commonly reported reasons were to relax or relieve tension (44.9 percent) or to help with sleep (20.4 percent). Commonly reported reasons for misuse among stimulant misusers were to help be alert or stay awake, help concentrate, or help study (26.8, 26.5, and 22.5 percent, respectively). Among past year sedative misusers, the most common reason was to help with sleep (71.7 percent). Even if people misused prescription drugs for conditions for which these drugs are typically prescribed (e.g., for pain relief or to help with sleep), use without one’s own prescription or use more often or at a higher dosage than prescribed nevertheless constitutes misuse.
"Among people aged 12 or older who misused pain relievers in the past year, the most common source for the last pain reliever that was misused was from a friend or relative (53.7 percent), and about one third misused a prescription from one doctor. About 1 in 20 people who misused pain relievers bought the last pain reliever they misused from a drug dealer or stranger."

Hughes, A., Williams, M. R., Lipari, R. N., Bose, J., Copello, E. A. P., & Kroutil, L. A. (2016, September). Prescription drug use and misuse in the United States:
Results from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. NSDUH Data Review, p. 1. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/
https://www.samhsa.gov/data/si...
https://www.samhsa.gov/data/si...

40. Current Nonmedical Use of Prescription Stimulants in the US, 2013

"• The number and percentage of persons aged 12 or older who were current nonmedical users of stimulants in 2013 (1.4 million or 0.5 percent) were similar to those in 2012 (1.2 million or 0.5 percent), but were higher than the estimates in 2011 (970,000 or 0.4 percent)."

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014, p. 17.
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...

Pages