Drug Use Estimates

101. Effectiveness of Supply Reduction

"Overall, supply reduction — that is, reducing the availability of drugs — does not appear to have played as major a role as many had assumed in four of the five most important downturns in illicit drug use that have occurred to date, namely, those for marijuana, cocaine, crack, and ecstasy (see, for example, Figures 8-4, 8-5, and 8-6). In the case of cocaine, perceived availability actually rose during much of the period of downturn in use. (These data are corroborated by data from the Drug Enforcement Administration on trends in the price and purity of cocaine on the streets.96) For marijuana, perceived availability has remained very high for 12th graders since 1976, while use dropped substantially from 1979 through 1992 and fluctuated considerably thereafter. Perceived availability for ecstasy did increase in parallel with increasing use in the 1990s, but the decline phase for use appears to have been driven much more by changing beliefs about the dangers of ecstasy than by any sharp downturn in availability. Similarly, amphetamine use declined appreciably from 1981 to 1992, with only a modest corresponding change in perceived availability. Finally, until 1995, heroin use had not risen among 12th graders even though availability had increased substantially.
"• What did change dramatically were young peoples’ beliefs about the dangers of using marijuana, cocaine, crack, and ecstasy. We believe that increases in perceived risk led to a decrease in use directly through their impact on young people’s demand for these drugs and indirectly through their impact on personal disapproval and, subsequently, peer norms. Because the perceived risk of amphetamine use was changing little when amphetamine use was declining substantially (1981–1986), other factors must have helped to account for the decline in demand for that class of drugs—quite conceivably some displacement by cocaine. Because three classes of drugs (marijuana, cocaine, and amphetamines) have shown different patterns of change, it is highly unlikely that a general factor (e.g., a broad shift against drug use) can explain their various trends.
"• The increase in marijuana use in the 1990s among 12th graders added more compelling evidence to this interpretation. It was both preceded and accompanied by a decrease in perceived risk. (Between 1991 and 1997, the perceived risk of regular marijuana use declined 21 percentage points.) Peer disapproval dropped sharply from 1993 through 1997, after perceived risk began to change, consistent with our interpretation that perceived risk can be an important determinant of disapproval as well as of use. Perceived availability remained fairly constant from 1991 to 1993 and then increased seven percentage points through 1998."

Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E. & Miech, R. A. (2014). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2013: Volume I, Secondary school students. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan, p. 461.
http://www.monitoringthefuture...

102. Drug Use Comparisons Between EU and US

"On average, 7% of the ESPAD students stated that they had used marijuana or hashish during the past 30 days. As a proportion of the group reporting lifetime use, this corresponds to roughly four in ten. The highest rates of past-30-days cannabis use are found in the two neighbouring countries of France and Monaco (24% and 21%, respectively), followed by the United States (not an ESPAD country) (18 %) and the Czech Republic and Spain (not an ESPAD country) (15% each). In these top countries, about 10% of all students had used cannabis at an average frequency roughly corresponding to at least once a week during the period in question (3–5 times or more in the past 30 days). This proportion is considerably larger than the average for all ESPAD countries (4%)."

"The 2011 ESPAD Report: Substance Use Among Students in 36 European Countries" (Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs, May 2012), p. 88.
http://www.espad.org/Uploads/E...

103. Any Drug Use vs Specific Drug Use

"Overall, these data reveal that, while use of individual drugs (other than marijuana) may fluctuate widely, the proportion using any of them is much more stable. In other words, the proportion of students prone to using such drugs and willing to cross the normative barriers to such use changes more gradually. The usage rate for each individual drug, on the other hand, reflects many more rapidly changing determinants specific to that drug: how widely its psychoactive potential is recognized, how favorable the reports of its supposed benefits are, how risky its use is seen to be, how acceptable it is in the peer group, how accessible it is, and so on."

Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2013). Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2012. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan, p. 10.
http://www.monitoringthefuture...

104. Annual Prevalence of Use of Various Drugs by US Youth in Grades 8, 10, and 12 Combined, 1998-2014


Click here for the complete datatable of Annual Prevalence of Use of Various Drugs by US Youth in Grades 8, 10, and 12 Combined, 1998-2014

Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Miech, R. A., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (February 2015). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use: 1975-2014: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan, Table 2, p. 56.
http://monitoringthefuture.org...

105. Estimated Daily Prevalence of Use of Various Drugs By US Youth In Grades 8, 10, and 12 Combined

Click here for the complete datatable of Estimated Daily Prevalence of Use of Various Drugs By US Youth In Grades 8, 10, and 12 Combined

Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Miech, R. A., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (February 2015). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use: 1975-2014: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan, Table 4, p. 58.
http://monitoringthefuture.org...

106. Estimated Lifetime Prevalence of Substance Use in the US by Those Aged 12 and Older (Numbers in Thousands)

In 2015, an estimated 48.8% of those aged 12 and older in the US, or a total of 130,610,000 people, had tried an illicit drug sometime in their lifetime.

Click here for the complete datatable of Estimated Lifetime Prevalence of Substance Use in the US by Those Aged 12 and Older

Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2016). 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed Tables. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, MD, Tables 1.1A, 1.1B, and 2.1A.
https://www.samhsa.gov/data/si...
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Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2015). 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed Tables. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, MD, Tables 1.1A, 1.1B, and 2.1A.
https://www.samhsa.gov/data/si...
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Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2014). 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed Tables. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, MD, Tables 1.1A, 1.1B, and 2.1A.
https://www.samhsa.gov/data/si...
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Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed Tables. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2013, Tables 1.1A and 2.1A.
Report: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Illicit Drugs: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Alcohol and Tobacco: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
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Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. "Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings," NSDUH Series H-44, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12-4713. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012.
Report: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Illicit Drugs: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Alcohol & Tobacco: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
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Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2011). "Results from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Volume I. Summary of National Findings" (Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-38A, HHS Publication No. SMA 10-4586 Findings). Rockville, MD.
Report: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Illicit Drugs: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Alcohol/Tobacco: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
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Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2010). "Results from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Volume I. Summary of National Findings" (Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-38A, HHS Publication No. SMA 10-4586 Findings). Rockville, MD.
Report: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Illicit Drugs: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Alcohol/Tobacco: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
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Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2009). Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings (Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434). Rockville, MD.
Report: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Illicit Drugs: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Alcohol/Tobacco: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
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Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2008). Results from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings (Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-34, DHHS Publication No. SMA 08-4343). Rockville, MD.
Report: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Illicit Drugs: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Alcohol/Tobacco: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
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Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2007). Results from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings (Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-32, DHHS Publication No. SMA 07-4293). Rockville, MD.
Report: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Illicit Drugs: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Alcohol/Tobacco: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
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Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2006). Results from the 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings (Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-30, DHHS Publication No. SMA 06-4194). Rockville, MD.
Report: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Illicit Drugs: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Alcohol/Tobacco: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
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Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2005). Results from the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings (Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-28, DHHS Publication No. SMA 05-4062). Rockville, MD.
Report: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Illicit Drugs: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Alcohol/Tobacco: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
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Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2004). Results from the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings (Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-25, DHHS Publication No. SMA 04-3964). Rockville, MD.
Report: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Illicit Drugs: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...
Alcohol/Tobacco: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data...

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