Marijuana

26. Prevalence of Marijuana Use in the US, by State, 2009-2010

"In 2009-2010, past month marijuana use was reported by 6.8 percent of the U.S. population aged 12 years or older, an increase from 6.4 percent in 2008-2009 (Table C.3). Nine States that were in the top fifth for past month illicit drug use among persons aged 12 or older also were ranked in the top fifth for past month marijuana use: Alaska, Colorado, District of Columbia, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont (Figures 2.1 and 2.9).
"Seven States were ranked in the top fifth for past month marijuana use in age groups 12 to 17, 18 to 25, 26 or older, and 12 or older: Colorado, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont (Figures 2.9 to 2.12). The rate of past month marijuana use in the 12 or older population ranged from 3.1 percent in Utah to 11.8 percent in Alaska (Table B.3). Utah had the lowest rate in all age groups. Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, past month marijuana use among persons 12 or older increased in 10 States: Colorado, District of Columbia, Idaho, Illinois, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Washington (Table C.3). During the same time period, past month marijuana use increased in one State among 12 to 17 year olds (District of Columbia), eight States among 18 to 25 year olds (Florida, Illinois, Iowa, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Washington), and four States among persons aged 26 or older (District of Columbia, Idaho, Michigan, and Texas). Decreases only occurred in two States: Tennessee, among persons aged 12 or older, and Utah, among youths aged 12 to 17. All four census regions had higher rates of past month marijuana use among persons aged 12 or older in 2009-2010 compared with 2008-2009."

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, NSDUH Series H-43, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12-4703. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012.
http://www.samhsa.gov...
http://www.samhsa.gov...

27. Early Initiation of Substance Use

“When initiation of substance use occurs in preadolescence or early in adolescence, the risk of addiction is magnified.8 CASA’s analysis of national data finds that individuals‡ who first used any addictive substance before age 15 are six and a half times as likely to have a substance use disorder as those who did not use any addictive substance until age 21 or older (28.1 percent vs. 4.3 percent).”

"Adolescent Substance Use: America’s #1 Public Health Problem," The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (New York, NY: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, June 2011), p. 38
http://www.casacolumbia.org...

28. Alcohol Use v Marijuana Use - US Youth and "The Displacement Hypothesis"

"Alcohol and marijuana are the two most commonly used substances by teenagers to get high, and a question that is often asked is to what extent does change in one lead to a change in the other. If the substances co-vary negatively (an increase in one is accompanied by a decrease in the other) they are said to be substitutes; if they co-vary positively, they are said to be complements. Note that there is no evidence that the 13-year decline in marijuana use observed between 1979 and 1992 led to any accompanying increase in alcohol use; in fact, through 1992 there was some parallel decline in annual, monthly, and daily alcohol use, as well as in occasions of heavy drinking among 12th graders, suggesting that the two substances are complements. Earlier, when marijuana use increased in the late 1970s, alcohol use also increased. As marijuana use increased again in the 1990s, alcohol use again increased with it, although not as sharply. In sum, there has been little evidence from MTF over the years that supports what we have termed 'the displacement hypothesis,' which asserts that an increase in marijuana use will somehow lead to a decline in alcohol use, or vice versa.8 Instead, both substances appear to move more in harmony, perhaps both reflecting changes in a more general construct, such as the tendency to use psychoactive substances, whether licit or illicit, or in the frequency with which teens party. However, with alcohol use decreasing and marijuana use increasing over the past few years, it is possible that the displacement hypothesis is gaining some support. As a number of states are changing their policies regarding marijuana, our continued monitoring will provide the needed evidence concerning whether alcohol and marijuana are substitutes or complements."

Miech, R. A., Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2015). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2014: Volume I, Secondary school students. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan, pp. 161-162.
http://monitoringthefuture.org...
http://monitoringthefuture.org...

29. Marijuana Use Among 50-Year-Olds in the US

"Among 50-year-old high school graduates in 2012, we estimate that about three quarters (74%) have tried marijuana, and that about two thirds (64%) have tried an illicit drug other than marijuana. (These estimates are adjusted to correct for panel attrition, as described in chapter 4 of Volume II.)
"Their current behavior is far less extreme than those statistics might suggest, but it is not by any means negligible. One in eight (12%) indicates using marijuana in the last 12 months, and one in ten (10%) indicates using any other illicit drug in the same period. Their past-month prevalence rates are lower—7.3% and 6.2%, respectively, for marijuana and any other illicit drug. About 1 in 43 (2.3%) is a current daily marijuana user, though substantially more indicate that they have used marijuana daily at some time in the past."

Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., and Schulenberg, J. E., (2013). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2012: Volume 2, College students and adults ages 19–50. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan, p. 37.
http://www.monitoringthefuture...

30. Daily Marijuana, Alcohol, and Tobacco Use Among 19-30 Year Olds in the US

"Daily marijuana use held steady at 6.8% in 2015 among young adults, but that is triple the rate in 1992 (2.3%), the low point since estimates for this age group first became available in 1986. The 2014 and 2015 rates are the highest levels of daily use ever observed in this young adult population since tracking of their use began 29 years ago."

Click here for complete datatable of Thirty-Day Prevalence of Daily Marijuana, Alcohol, and Tobacco Use Among 19-30 Year Olds in the US

Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E. & Miech, R. A. (2016). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2015: Volume 2, College students and adults ages 19–55. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan, p. 141, and Table 4-5, p. 117. Available at http://monitoringthefuture.org...
http://monitoringthefuture.org...

31. Lower Opioid Overdose Mortality Rates In States With Medical Cannabis Laws

"Although the mean annual opioid analgesic overdose mortality rate was lower in states with medical cannabis laws compared with states without such laws, the findings of our secondary analyses deserve further consideration. State-specific characteristics, such as trends in attitudes or health behaviors, may explain variation in medical cannabis laws and opioid analgesic overdose mortality, and we found some evidence that differences in these characteristics contributed to our findings. When including state-specific linear time trends in regression models, which are used to adjust for hard-to-measure confounders that change over time, the association between laws and opioid analgesic overdose mortality weakened. In contrast, we did not find evidence that states that passed medical cannabis laws had different overdose mortality rates in years prior to law passage, providing a temporal link between laws and changes in opioid analgesic overdose mortality. In addition, we did not find evidence that laws were associated with differences in mortality rates for unrelated conditions (heart disease and septicemia), suggesting that differences in opioid analgesic overdose mortality cannot be explained by broader changes in health. In summary, although we found a lower mean annual rate of opioid analgesic mortality in states with medical cannabis laws, a direct causal link cannot be established."

Bacchuber, Marcus A., MD; Saloner, Brendan, PhD; Cunningham, Chinazo O., MD, MS; and Barry, Colleen L., PhD, MPP. "Medical Cannabis Laws and Opioid Analgesic Overdose Mortality in the United States, 1999-2010." JAMA Intern Med. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.4005. Published online August 25, 2014.
http://archinte.jamanetwork.com...

32. Estimated Prevalence of Cannabis Dependence

"Some 4.3 percent of Americans have been dependent on marijuana, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000), at some time in their lives. Marijuana produces dependence less readily than most other illicit drugs. Some 9 percent of those who try marijuana develop dependence compared to, for example, 15 percent of people who try cocaine and 24 percent of those who try heroin. However, because so many people use marijuana, cannabis dependence is twice as prevalent as dependence on any other illicit psychoactive substance (cocaine, 1.8 percent; heroin, 0.7 percent; Anthony and Helzer, 1991; Anthony, Warner, and Kessler, 1994)."

Budney A, Roffman R, Stephens R, Walker D. Marijuana dependence and its treatment. Addiction Science and Clinical Practice. 2007;4(1):4–16.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov...
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov...

33. Estimated Prevalence of Cannabis Dependence or Abuse in the US

"• Marijuana was the illicit drug with the largest number of persons with past year dependence or abuse in 2013, followed by pain relievers, then by cocaine. Of the 6.9 million persons aged 12 or older who were classified with illicit drug dependence or abuse in 2013, 4.2 million persons had marijuana dependence or abuse (representing 1.6 percent of the total population aged 12 or older, and 61.4 percent of all those classified with illicit drug dependence or abuse), 1.9 million persons had pain reliever dependence or abuse, and 855,000 persons had cocaine dependence or abuse (Figure 7.2)."
"• The number of persons who had marijuana dependence or abuse in 2013 (4.2 million) was similar to the number in 2012 (4.3 million) and in each year from 2002 through 2011 (ranging from 3.9 million to 4.5 million) (Figure 7.3). The rate of marijuana dependence or abuse in 2013 (1.6 percent) was lower than the rates in 2002 (1.8 percent) and 2004 (1.9 percent). Otherwise, the rate in 2013 was similar to the rates in prior years (ranging from 1.6 to 1.8 percent).
"• The number of persons who had pain reliever dependence or abuse in 2013 (1.9 million) was similar to the number in 2012 (2.1 million) and in each year from 2006 through 2011 (ranging from 1.6 million to 1.9 million) (Figure 7.3). However, the number in 2013 was higher than the numbers in 2002 to 2005 (ranging from 1.4 million to 1.5 million)."

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014, p. 83.
http://www.samhsa.gov...
http://www.samhsa.gov...

34. Admissions to Treatment for Marijuana in the US

According to the federal Treatment Episode Data Set, in 2014 there were 247,461 admissions to treatment with marijuana reported as the primary substance of abuse out of the total 1,614,358 admissions to treatment in the US for those aged 12 and older for all substances that year. This is the lowest number of marijuana admissions and total treatment admissions in at least a decade: marijuana admissions peaked in 2009 at 373,257, and total admissions peaked in 2008 at 2,076,291.
According to the TEDS report:
"• Marijuana/hashish was reported as the primary substance of abuse by 15 percent of TEDS admissions aged 12 and older in 2014 [Table 1.1b].
"• The average age at admission for primary marijuana/hashish admissions was 26 years [Table 2.1b], although the peak age at admission for both genders in all race/ethnicities was about 16 to 17 years [Figure 12]. Thirty-two percent of marijuana/hashish admissions were under age 20 (vs. 8 percent of all admissions combined), and primary marijuana/hashish abuse accounted for 78 percent of admissions aged 12 to 14 and 76 percent of admissions aged 15 to 17 years [Table 2.1c].
"• Non-Hispanic Whites accounted for 44 percent of primary marijuana/hashish admissions (30 percent were males and 14 percent were females), and non-Hispanic Blacks accounted for 31 percent (24 percent were males and 8 percent were females) [Table 2.3b].
"• Twenty-four percent of primary marijuana/hashish admissions had first used marijuana/hashish by age 12 and another 30 percent had first used it by age 14 [Table 2.5b].
"• Primary marijuana/hashish admissions were most likely to be referred by the court/criminal justice system (52 percent). Primary marijuana/hashish admissions were less likely than all admis-sions combined to be self- or individually referred to treatment (18 vs. 37 percent) [Table 2.6b].
"• More than 4 in 5 marijuana/hashish admissions (86 percent) received ambulatory treatment; among all admissions combined, 3 in 5 (61 percent) received ambulatory treatment [Table 2.7b].
"• Sixty-three percent of primary marijuana/hashish admissions reported abuse of additional sub-stances. Alcohol was reported by 37 percent [Table 3.8]."

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS): 2004-2014. National Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment Services. BHSIS Series S-84, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 16-4986. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2016, pp. 21-22, and Table 1.1a, p. 47.
https://www.samhsa.gov...
https://www.samhsa.gov...

35. Treatment Admissions in the US with Marijuana as a Primary Substance

"• Marijuana/hashish was reported as the primary substance of abuse by 15 percent of TEDS admissions aged 12 and older in 2014 [Table 1.1b].
"• The average age at admission for primary marijuana/hashish admissions was 26 years [Table 2.1b], although the peak age at admission for both genders in all race/ethnicities was about 16 to 17 years [Figure 12]. Thirty-two percent of marijuana/hashish admissions were under age 20 (vs. 8 percent of all admissions combined), and primary marijuana/hashish abuse accounted for 78 percent of admissions aged 12 to 14 and 76 percent of admissions aged 15 to 17 years [Table 2.1c].
"• Non-Hispanic Whites accounted for 44 percent of primary marijuana/hashish admissions (30 percent were males and 14 percent were females), and non-Hispanic Blacks accounted for 31 percent (24 percent were males and 8 percent were females) [Table 2.3b].
"• Twenty-four percent of primary marijuana/hashish admissions had first used marijuana/hashish by age 12 and another 30 percent had first used it by age 14 [Table 2.5b].
"• Primary marijuana/hashish admissions were most likely to be referred by the court/criminal justice system (52 percent). Primary marijuana/hashish admissions were less likely than all admis-sions combined to be self- or individually referred to treatment (18 vs. 37 percent) [Table 2.6b].
"• More than 4 in 5 marijuana/hashish admissions (86 percent) received ambulatory treatment; among all admissions combined, 3 in 5 (61 percent) received ambulatory treatment [Table 2.7b].
"• Sixty-three percent of primary marijuana/hashish admissions reported abuse of additional sub-stances. Alcohol was reported by 37 percent [Table 3.8]."

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS): 2004-2014. National Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment Services. BHSIS Series S-84, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 16-4986. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2016, pp. 21-22.
https://www.samhsa.gov...
https://www.samhsa.gov...

36. Daily/Frequent Marijuana Use in the US

"In 2011, an estimated 16.7 percent of past year marijuana users aged 12 or older used marijuana on 300 or more days within the past 12 months. This translates into nearly 5.0 million persons using marijuana on a daily or almost daily basis over a 12-month period.
"• In 2011, an estimated 39.1 percent (7.1 million) of current marijuana users aged 12 or older used marijuana on 20 or more days in the past month. This was similar to the 2010 estimate of 39.8 percent or 6.9 million users."

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-44, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12-4713. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012, p. 27.
http://www.samhsa.gov...

37. Racial Bias In Marijuana Arrests

"In 1990, half of California’s marijuana possession arrestees were African-American, Latino, Asian, or other nonwhite and 35% were under age 20. In 2010, 64% were nonwhite and 52% were under age 20. Marijuana possession arrests of teenagers of color rose from 3,100 in 1990 to 16,400 in 2010 – an arrest surge 300% greater than population growth in that group."

Males, Mike, "Misdemeanor marijuana arrests are skyrocketing and other California marijuana enforcement disparities," Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (San Francisco, CA: November 2011), p. 2.
http://www.cjcj.org...

38. Estimated Risk of Arrest for Marijuana Possession

"To provide a sense of the intensity of enforcement, we calculated the risk a marijuana user faces of being arrested for possession. If calculated per joint consumed, the figure nationally is trivial—perhaps one arrest for every 11,000–12,000 joints.4 However, the relevant risk may be the probability of being arrested during a year of normal consumption. Since marijuana is mostly consumed by individuals who use it at least once a month,5 we estimated the risk that such individuals face. We know from prior studies (e.g., Reuter, Hirschfield, and Davies, 2001) that these risks are higher for youth. Table 2.2 presents separate estimates for those aged 12–17 and for the entire population 12 and over. We observe that the annual risk of misdemeanor arrest for those 12–17 (6.6 percent) is more than twice the rate for the full population (3.0 percent)."

Kilmer, Beau; Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; MacCoun, Robert J.; Reuter, Peter H., "Altered State? Assessing How Marijuana Legalization in California Could Influence Marijuana Consumption and Public Budgets" Drug Policy Research Center (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2010), p. 8.
http://www.rand.org...

39. Impact of Medical Marijuana Laws on Crime Rates

"The central finding gleaned from the present study was that MML is not predictive of higher crime rates and may be related to reductions in rates of homicide and assault. Interestingly, robbery and burglary rates were unaffected by medicinal marijuana legislation, which runs counter to the claim that dispensaries and grow houses lead to an increase in victimization due to the opportunity structures linked to the amount of drugs and cash that are present. Although, this is in line with prior research suggesting that medical marijuana dispensaries may actually reduce crime in the immediate vicinity [8]."

Robert G. Morris, Michael TenEyck, JC Barnes, and Tomislav V. Kovandzic, "The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws On Crime: Evidence From State Panel Data, 1990-2006," PLoS ONE 9(3): e92816. March 2014. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092816
http://www.plosone.org...

40. Effect of Medical Marijuana Legalization On Crime Rates

"In sum, these findings run counter to arguments suggesting the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes poses a danger to public health in terms of exposure to violent crime and property crimes. To be sure, medical marijuana laws were not found to have a crime exacerbating effect on any of the seven crime types. On the contrary, our findings indicated that MML precedes a reduction in homicide and assault. While it is important to remain cautious when interpreting these findings as evidence that MML reduces crime, these results do fall in line with recent evidence [29] and they conform to the longstanding notion that marijuana legalization may lead to a reduction in alcohol use due to individuals substituting marijuana for alcohol [see generally 29, 30]. Given the relationship between alcohol and violent crime [31], it may turn out that substituting marijuana for alcohol leads to minor reductions in violent crimes that can be detected at the state level. That said, it also remains possible that these associations are statistical artifacts (recall that only the homicide effect holds up when a Bonferroni correction is made)."

Robert G. Morris, Michael TenEyck, JC Barnes, and Tomislav V. Kovandzic, "The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws On Crime: Evidence From State Panel Data, 1990-2006," PLoS ONE 9(3): e92816. March 2014. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092816
http://www.plosone.org...

41. Effect Of Medical Marijuana Legalization On Crime Rates

"Given that the current results failed to uncover a crime exacerbating effect attributable to MML, it is important to examine the findings with a critical eye. While we report no positive association between MML and any crime type, this does not prove MML has no effect on crime (or even that it reduces crime). It may be the case that an omitted variable, or set of variables, has confounded the associations and masked the true positive effect of MML on crime. If this were the case, such a variable would need to be something that was restricted to the states that have passed MML, it would need to have emerged in close temporal proximity to the passage of MML in all of those states (all of which had different dates of passage for the marijuana law), and it would need to be something that decreased crime to such an extent that it ‘‘masked’’ the true positive effect of MML (i.e., it must be something that has an opposite sign effect between MML [e.g., a positive correlation] and crime [e.g., a negative correlation]). Perhaps the more likely explanation of the current findings is that MML laws reflect behaviors and attitudes that have been established in the local communities. If these attitudes and behaviors reflect a more tolerant approach to one another’s personal rights, we are unlikely to expect an increase in crime and might even anticipate a slight reduction in personal crimes.
"Moreover, the present findings should also be taken in context with the nature of the data at hand. They are based on official arrest records (UCR), which do not account for crimes not reported to the police and do not account for all charges that may underlie an arrest. In any case, this longitudinal assessment of medical marijuana laws on state crime rates suggests that these laws do not appear to have any negative (i.e., crime exacerbating) impact on officially reported criminality during the years in which the laws are in effect, at least when it comes to the types of offending explored here. It is also important to keep in mind that the UCR data used here did not account for juvenile offending, which may or may not be empirically tethered to MML in some form or another; an assessment of which is beyond the scope of this study."

Robert G. Morris, Michael TenEyck, JC Barnes, and Tomislav V. Kovandzic, "The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws On Crime: Evidence From State Panel Data, 1990-2006," PLoS ONE 9(3): e92816. March 2014. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092816
http://www.plosone.org...

42. Treatment Admissions for Marijuana in the US, 1992-2002, and Referrals from the Criminal Justice System

" A recent issue of The DASIS Report2 examined marijuana treatment admissions between 1992 and 2002 and found that between these years [1992 and 2002] the rate of substance abuse treatment admissions reporting marijuana as their primary substance of abuse3 per 100,000 population increased 162 percent. Similarly, the proportion of marijuana admissions increased from 6 percent of all admissions in 1992 to 15 percent of all admissions reported to the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) in 2002.
"During this time period, the percentage of marijuana treatment admissions that were referred from the criminal justice system increased from 48 percent of all marijuana admissions in 1992 to 58 percent of all marijuana admissions in 2002."

"Differences in Marijuana Admissions Based on Source of Referral: 2002," The DASIS Report (Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, June 5, 2005), pp. 1-2.
http://drugwarfacts.org...

43. Estimated Number Of People In The US Sentenced To State and Federal Prison For Marijuana Offenses

Total Federal Prisoners 2004 = 170,535
Total State Prisoners 2004 = 1,244,311

Percent of federal prisoners held for drug law violations = 55%
Percent of state prisoners held for drug law violations = 21%

Marijuana/hashish, Percent of federal drug offenders, 2004 = 12.4%
Marijuana/hashish, Percent of state drug offenders, 2004 = 12.7%

(Total prisoners x percent drug law) x percent marijuana = "marijuana prisoners"

Federal marijuana prisoners in 2004 = 11,630
State marijuana prisoners in 2004 = 33,186
Total federal and state marijuana prisoners in 2004 = 44,816

Note: These data only address people in prisons and thus exclude the 700,000+ offenders who may be in local jails because of a marijuana conviction.

Mumola , Christopher J. and Karberg, Jennifer C., "Drug Use and Dependence, State and Federal Prisoners, 2004," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, January 2007) NCJ 213530, p. 4.
http://www.bjs.gov...
Harrison, Paige M. and Beck, Allan J., "Prisoners in 2004," Bureau of Justice Statistics, (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, October 2005), NCJ 210677, Table 1, page 2.
http://www.bjs.gov...

44. Marijuana Potency

"Although marijuana grown in the United States was once considered inferior because of a low concentration of THC, advancements in plant selection and cultivation have resulted in higher THC-containing domestic marijuana. In 1974, the average THC content of illicit marijuana was less than one percent. Today most commercial grade marijuana from Mexico/Columbia and domestic outdoor cultivated marijuana has an average THC content of about 4 to 6 percent. Between 1998 and 2002, NIDA-sponsored Marijuana Potency Monitoring System (MPMP) analyzed 4,603 domestic samples. Of those samples, 379 tested over 15 percent THC, 69 samples tested between 20 and 25 percent THC and four samples tested over 25 percent THC."

Lyman, Michael "Practical Drug Enforcement, Third Edition" CRC Press (Boca Raton, FL: 2007), p. 74.
http://mapinc.org...

45. Primary Marijuana Cultivation States

"California, Hawaii, Kentucky, Oregon, Tennessee, Washington, and West Virginia are the primary marijuana cultivation states (M7 states). Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program (DCE/SP) data show that more than 8 million plants were eradicated in 2008, 89 percent (7,136,133 plants of 8,013,308 plants) of which were eradicated in the M7 States."

National Drug Intelligence Center, "Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2009," (Johnstown, PA: July, 2009), p. 1.
http://www.justice.gov...

46. Marijuana Decriminalization and Effect on Use

"In conclusion, our results suggest that participation in the use of both licit and illicit drugs is price sensitive. Participation is sensitive to own prices and the price of the other drugs. In particular, we conclude that cannabis and cigarettes are complements, and there is some evidence to suggest that cannabis and alcohol are substitutes, although decriminalization of cannabis corresponds with higher alcohol use. Alcohol and cigarettes are found to be complements."

Cameron, Lisa & Williams, Jenny, "Cannabis, Alcohol and Cigarettes: Substitutes or Complements?" The Economic Record (Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia: The Economic Society of Australia, March 2001), p. 32.
http://cms.sem.tsinghua.edu.cn...

47. Average THC, CBD, and CBN Levels of Seized Domestic Cannabis in the US, 1995-2015


Click here for the complete datatable of Average Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabidiol (CBD), and Cannabinol (CBN) Levels of Seized Samples of Domestic Cannabis in the US, 1995-2015

National Drug Control Strategy Data Supplement 2016, Executive Office of the President: Office of National Drug Control Policy, Jan. 2017, Table 77, p. 87, citing University of Mississippi, National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Quarterly Report #134, Potency Monitoring Program (September 2016).
https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov...
Quarterly Report #104, Dec. 16, 2008 - March 15, 2009, University of Mississippi Potency Monitoring Project (Oxford, MS: National Center for Natural Products Research, a Division of the Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2008), Mahmoud A. ElSohly, PhD, Director, NIDA Marijuana Project (NIDA Contract #N01DA-5-7746), pp. 8 and 10.
https://www.ncjrs.gov...

48. THC Potency of Seized Cannabis, by Type, 1985-2014

Click here for complete datatable of THC Potency of Tested Cannabis from Federal Seizure and State and Local Eradication Samples, by Type, 1985-2014.

"National Drug Control Strategy Data Supplement 2015," Executive Office of the President, Office of National Drug Control Policy, November 2015, Table 78, p. 92, citing as its sources: University of Mississippi, National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Quarterly Report #129, Potency Monitoring Program July 13, 2015) for data from 1995 to 2014; Quarterly Report 107 (January 12, 2010) for data from 1985 to 1994.
https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov...

49. Average Potency of Seized Cannabis in the UK, 2008

"• Twenty-three Police Forces in England and Wales participated in the study. Forces were requested to submit samples confiscated from street-level users. In early 2008, they submitted 2,921 samples for analysis to either the Forensic Science Service Ltd (FSS) or LGC Forensics at Culham (LGC F).
"• Initial laboratory examination showed that 80.8% were herbal cannabis and 15.3% were cannabis resin. The remaining 3.9% were either indeterminate or not cannabis.
"• Microscopic examination of around two-thirds of the samples showed that over 97% of the herbal cannabis had been grown by intensive methods (sinsemilla). The remainder was classed as traditional imported herbal cannabis.
"• Regional variations were found in the market share of herbal cannabis. Thus North Wales, South Wales, Cleveland and Devon and Cornwall submitted proportionately fewer herbal cannabis samples, whereas Essex, Metropolitan and Avon and Somerset submitted proportionately more. These differences were statistically significant at the 0.1% confidence interval.
"• The mean THC concentration (potency) of the sinsemilla samples was 16.2% (range = 4.1 to 46%). The median potency was 15.0%, close to values reported by others in the past few years.
"• The mean THC concentration (potency) of the traditional imported herbal cannabis samples was 8.4% (range = 0.3 to 22%); median = 9.0%. Only a very small number of samples were received and analysed.
"• The mean potency of cannabis resin was 5.9% (range = 1.3 to 27.8%). The median = 5.0% was typical of values reported by others over many years.
"• Cannabis resin had a mean CBD content of 3.5% (range = 0.1 to 7.3%), but the CBD content of herbal cannabis was less than 0.1% in nearly all cases.
"• There was a weak, but statistically-significant, correlation (r = 0.48; N = 112; P < 0.001) between the THC and the CBD content of resin."

Hardwick, Sheila; King, Leslie, "Home Office Cannabis Potency Study 2008," Home Office Scientific Development Branch (Sandridge, St Albans, UK: May 2008), p. 1.
http://www.dldocs.stir.ac.uk...

50. Trends in Cannabis Potency in the US, 1980-1995

"Data on the THC content of cannabis products in the USA have been collected by ElSohly et al. (1984, 2000) for many years as part of the University of Mississippi Potency Monitoring Project. Samples were submitted by law enforcement agencies and it has to be assumed that they were representative of the market. Mean THC values are shown in Figure 16 for normal herbal cannabis, sinsemilla and resin. The anomalously high value for resin in 1997 (19.24 %) has been excluded; it was based on only five values and is over nine standard deviations above the mean potency for the period 1980–1996. Although there has been an increase in the potency of herbal cannabis over the twenty-five-year period, cannabis resin (and hash oil) showed no long-term trends since 1980 when data were first collected. Although the potency of sinsemilla showed a clear upward trend in the final three years of the study, no such trend was obvious when the longer period of 1980–1995 is examined, particularly in view of the wide variations in potency that occurred from year to year (ElSohly et al., 2000). The THC content of herbal cannabis increased from around 1% before 1980 to around 4% in 1997. This increase, when seen in the European context, is deceptive. Before 1980, all mean herbal cannabis THC levels in the ElSohly study were less than 2.4%. By contrast, and as shown in Figure 10, comparable levels at that time in the United Kingdom were twice as great. In other words, it must be assumed that the quality of herbal cannabis consumed in the USA more than twenty years ago was unusually poor, but that in recent years it has risen to levels typical of Europe. So even the modest increase found by ElSohly et al. (2000) may be less significant than it seems. A recent analysis of cannabis seized in Florida in 2002 (Newell, 2003) showed amounts of THC found in samples ranging from 1.41% to 12.62%; the average THC content was 6.20%, which is almost identical to the 2002 value reported by the University of Mississippi Potency Monitoring Project."

EMCDDA Insights #6: An Overview of Cannabis Potency in Europe, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2004), p. 52.
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu...

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